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Pathology > Atheroma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Atheroma Deck (16):
1

What is atheroma

Build up of fatty material on the inside of an artery

2

What is atherosclerosis

The progressive narrowing of an artery reducing the space within the lumen which could cause further blockage

3

What is pathogenesis

Chronic injury to the endothelium causing chronic inflammation caused by
E.g smoking hypertension hyperlipidemia
Plaque forms as macrophages object fatty deposits

4

What are the 6 stages of atheroma

T1- initial lesion 10 yr
T2- fatty streak 10yr
T3- intermediate lesion 30yr
T4- atheroma lesion 30 year
T5-fibroatheroma lesion 30 yr
T6- complex lesion 40 year = thrombus or haemorrhage

5

Where can atheroma build up

Any artery.
Coronary - heart disease
Aorta- aneurysm
Carotid- narrow and cause a stroke
Peripheral vascular disease

6

What are 5 complications of atheroma build up

. Aneurysms
. Thrombosis
. Haematoma formation
. Embolism
. Stenosis

7

How is atheroma treated

Secondary prevention
Revascularisation

8

What is iaschemic heart disease

Imbalance in the amount of oxygen and nutrients required and the amount that can be supplied.
Caused by decreased blood flow and a high oxygen demand

9

What are the risk factors for ischameic heart disease

Family history
Male
Old
Smoking
High bp
Diabetes
Obesity
Lack of exercise
Alcohol

10

What are the symptoms of ischemic heart disease

Crushing chest pain right arm and jaw
Short of breath
Palpitations
Syncope
Nausea
Sweating
Pale

11

WhT are the 3 diagnoses of ischaemic heart disease

Stable angina- less than 20 min solved by rest or gnt
Unstable angina- happens at rest for longer than 20 min
NSTEMI/STEMI- plaque rupture, occlusion, MI

12

How to investigate iaschemic heart disease

Obs
Bloods
Chest x ray
ECG
Stress test

13

What are the complications of ischemic heart disease

Cardiac arrest
Arythmia
Pericarditis
Valve defect

14

What are the treatments for ischemic heart disease

Oxygen pain relief- aspirin
Lifestyle changes
Nitrates
B blockers
Theombloic therapy
Ptca
Coronary artery by pass
Reduce stress

15

How to treat hyperlipedimia

Reduce low density lipids
Reduce cholesterol and saturated fats
Statins

16

How to prevent or modify atheroma

Stop smoking
Lower bp
Loose weight
Increase exercise
Reduce alcohol consumption
Increase hdl and decrease ldl