Barron's: Chapter 13 - Treatment of Psychological Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Barron's: Chapter 13 - Treatment of Psychological Disorders Deck (49):
1

Trephining

- an operation performed since Stone Age times (though far less frequently these days) in which a circular section of the skull is carved away, leaving a hole in the skull.

2

Deinstitutionalization

- the process of replacing long-stay psychiatric hospitals with less isolated community mental health services for those diagnosed with a mental disorder or developmental disability.

3

Prevention

- used to reduce the incidence of societal problems, such as joblessness or homelessness

4

Psychotherapy

- largely consists of talking to a psychologist

5

Psychoanalysis

- a patient would lie on a couch while the therapist sits in a chair out of the patient's line of vision

6

Free association

- to say whatever comes to mind without thinking

7

Dream analysis

- patients describe their dreams

8

Manifest content

- the dream itself as it is remembered

9

Latent content

- the hidden psychological meaning of the dream

10

Resistance

- patients disagree with their therapists' interpretations

11

Transference

- the redirection to a substitute, usually a therapist, of emotions that were originally felt in childhood

12

Insight therapies

- a technique which assumes that a person's behavior, thoughts, and emotions become disordered as a result of the individual's lack of understanding as to what motivates him or her, such as unresolved old conflicts or beliefs.

13

Humanistic therapies

- used help the client develop a stronger, healthier sense of self, as well as access and understand their feelings to help gain a sense of meaning in life.

14

Client or person-centered therapy

- a counseling approach that requires the client to take an active role in his or her treatment with the therapist being nondirective and supportive.

15

Unconditional positive regard

- a concept developed by the humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers, is the basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does, especially in the context of client-centered therapy.

16

Active or reflective listening

- a communication strategy involving two key steps: seeking to understand a speaker's idea, then offering the idea back to the speaker, to confirm the idea has been understood correctly.

17

Gestalt therapy

- a psychotherapeutic approach developed by Fritz Perls (1893–1970). It focuses on insight into gestalts in patients and their relations to the world, and often uses role playing to aid the resolution of past conflicts.

18

Existential therapies

- a philosophical method of therapy that operates on the belief that inner conflict within a person is due to that individual's confrontation with the givens of existence.

19

Behaviorist therapies

- its premise is that all behavior is learned; faulty learning (i.e. conditioning) is the cause of abnormal behavior. Therefore the individual has to learn the correct or acceptable behavior.

20

Counterconditioning

- a technique employed in animal training, and in the treatment of phobias and similar conditions in humans, in which behavior incompatible with a habitual undesirable pattern is induced

21

Systematic desensitization

- a treatment for phobias in which the patient is exposed to progressively more anxiety-provoking stimuli and taught relaxation techniques.

22

Anxiety hierarcy

- first step of the process of systematic desensitization

23

Flooding

- a form of behavior therapy based on the principles of respondent conditioning. It is sometimes referred to as exposure therapy or prolonged exposure therapy. As a psychotherapeutic technique, it is used to treat phobia and anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder.

24

Aversive conditioning

- a type of behavior conditioning in which noxious stimuli are associated with undesirable or unwanted behavior that is to be modified or abolished, as the use of nausea-inducing drugs in the treatment of alcoholism.

25

Token economy

- a system of contingency management based on the systematic reinforcement of target behavior. The reinforcers are symbols or "tokens" that can be exchanged for other reinforcers.

26

Cognitive therapies

- a type of psychotherapy developed by American psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck.

27

Attributional style

- People who have healthy self esteem tend to show the reverse patterns of attributions. They tend to attribute positive events to stable, global, and internal causes, and negative events to temporary, specific or. external causes.

28

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

- Its goal is to change patterns of thinking or behavior that are behind people's difficulties, and so change the way they feel.

29

Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT)

- focuses on resolving emotional and behavioral problems and disturbances and enabling people to lead happier and more fulfilling life

30

Group therapies

- a form of psychotherapy that involves one or more therapists working with several people at the same time.

31

Somatic therapies

- a holistic therapy that studies the relationship between the mind and body in regard to psychological past.

32

Psychopharmacology

- the branch of psychology concerned with the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior.

33

Antipsychotic drugs

- a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis, principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

34

Antidepressants

- a drug used to treat depression

35

Antianxiety drugs

- drug used to help anxiety

36

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

- a procedure, done under general anesthesia, in which small electric currents are passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a brief seizure. ECT seems to cause changes in brain chemistry that can quickly reverse symptoms of certain mental illnesses.

37

Psychosurgery

- brain surgery, such as lobotomy, used to treat mental disorder.

38

Psychiatrists

- a medical practitioner specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness

39

Clinical psychologists

- a broad branch of psychology that focuses on diagnosing and treating mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.

40

Counseling psychologists

- a specialty within professional psychology that maintains a focus on facilitating personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span.

41

Psychoanalysts

- a person who practices psychoanalysis.

42

Sigmund Freud

- was the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

43

Carl Rogers

- was an American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology.

44

Fritz (Friedrich, Frederick) Perls

- was a noted German-born psychiatrist and psychotherapist.

45

Mary Cover Jones

- was known as "the mother of behavior therapy" because of her early work on the unconditioning of the fear reaction in infants.

46

Joseph Wolpe

- was known for developing theories and experiments about what is now called systematic desensitization and assertiveness training.

47

B. F. Skinner

- was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher.

48

Aaron Beck

- was regarded as the father of cognitive therapy, and his pioneering theories are widely used in the treatment of clinical depression.

49

Albert Ellis

- he developed rational emotive behavior therapy.

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