Flashcards in Barron's: Chapter 9 - Developmental Psychology Deck (56):
- study how our behaviors and thoughts change over our entire lives, from birth to death (or conception to cremation)
Nature versus nurture
- influences on development from nature (genetic factors) first and then moves on to theories about nurture (environmental factors)
- uses participants of different ages to compare how certain variables may change over the life span
- takes place over a long period of time, it examines one group of participants over time
- certain chemicals or agents that can affect the fetus
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
- children are born with small, malformed skulls and mental retardation
- reflexes we are born with and lose later in life
- the reciprocal relationship between caregiver and child
Harry Harlow's attachment research
- he raised tow monkeys with wire mothers, one had a bottle and the other was covered in soft material. The monkeys preferred the one with the soft cloth and were less stressed then the ones that had the mother with the bottle
Mary Ainsworth's strange situation
- parents left their kids for a short period of time and then returned
- classified by children who show some distress when their caregiver leaves but are able to compose themselves and do something knowing that their caregiver will return.
- an adult attachment style that is characterized by the urge to protect oneself and stay away from relationships, while at the same time having an urge to be in a relationship.
- Infants with this style are insecure and overemotional when it comes to their mothers. They are anxious when the mother is there and when she is absent.
- parents that set strict standards for their children's behavior and apply punishments for violations of these rules
- parents that do not set clear guidelines for their children
- parents have a set, consistent standard for their children's behavior, but the standards are reasonable and explained
- infants seek pleasure through their mouths
- stage develops during toilet training
- babies realize their gender and this causes conflict in the family
- kids enter the genital stage where they remain for the rest of their lives
Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory
- he thought that our personality was profoundly influenced by our experiences with others
Trust versus mistrust
- the first stage in Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. This stage begins at birth and lasts through one year of age. Infants learn to trust that their caregivers will meet their basic needs. If these needs are not consistently met, mistrust, suspicion, and anxiety may develop.
Autonomy versus shame and doubt
- the child is developing physically and becoming more mobile. Between the ages of 18 months and three, children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc.
Initiative versus guilt
- the third stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. ... During the initiative versus guilt stage, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interaction
Industry versus inferiority
- the fourth stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. The stage occurs during childhood between the ages of six and eleven. According to Erikson's stage theory, people progress through a series of stages as they develop and grow
Identity versus role confusion
- Adolescence is the period of life between childhood and adulthood. According to psychologist Erik Erikson, adolescents go through the psychosocial crisis of identity versus role confusion, which involves exploring who they are as individuals.
Intimacy versus isolation
- As we enter young adulthood in our early twenties, we also enter Erikson's stage known as intimacy vs. isolation. During this stage, young adults face the challenge of forming close relationships with others. They develop intimate friendships and partnerships.
Generativity versus stagnation
- the seventh stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. This stage takes place during middle adulthood between the ages of approximately 40 and 65.
Integrity versus despair
- According to Erikson,achieving a sense of integrity means fully accepting oneself and coming to termswith the death. Accepting responsibility for your life and being able to undothe past and achieve satisfaction with self is essential. The inability to dothis results in a feeling of despair.
Jean Piaget's cognitive developmental theory
- he hypothesized that the kids are all thinking in similar ways and these ways of thinking differed from the ways adults think
- a representation of a plan or theory in the form of an outline or model.
- the process by which a person or persons acquire the social and psychological characteristics of a group
- a term developed by psychologist Jean Piaget to describe what occurs when new information or experiences cause you to modify your existing schemas. Rather than make the new information fit into an existing schema, you change the schema in order to accommodate the new information.
- the first of the four stages Piaget uses to define cognitive development. Piaget designated the first two years of an infants lifeas the sensorimotor stage. During this period, infants are busy discovering relationships betweentheir bodies and the environment.
- the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be observed (seen, heard, touched, smelled or sensed in any way).
- the second stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development. This stage begins around age two as children start to talks and last until approximately age seven. During this stage, children begin to engage in symbolic play and learn to manipulate symbols.
- According to child psychologist David Elkind, this tendency for teenagers to focus on themselves and what others think of them, is called egocentrism in adolescence. The term egocentrism originally came from another child psychologist named Jean Piaget
- the concrete operational stage of development can be defined as the stage of cognitive development in which a child is capable of performing a variety of mental operations and thoughts using concrete concepts.
Concepts of conservation
- refers to a logical thinking ability which, according to the psychologist Jean Piaget, is not present in children during the preoperational stage of their development at ages 2–7, but develops in the concrete operational stage at ages 7–11.
- begins at approximately age twelve and lasts into adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning also emerge during this stage.
- awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes
Lawrence Kohlberg's moral developmental theory
- this theory made us understand that morality starts from the early childhood years and can be affected by several factors
- concerns a child-like approach to right and wrong.
- Most adults hold moral principles that are generally based on compliance with social norms and a recognition that those social norms help preserve social order
- the third and final level of Kohlberg's moral development taxonomy where individuals enter the highest level of morale development. People who have reached this stage of development are concerned with the innate rights of humans and guided by their own ethical principles.
- he best known among biologists for his pioneering work on imprinting in young animals.
- he is best known for his discovery of the principle of attachment, or imprinting, through which in some species a bond is formed between a new born animal and its caregiver
- she was an American-Canadian developmental psychologist known for her work in the development of attachment theory.
- she was known for her research on parenting styles and for her critique of the use of deception in psychological research.
- he was the founder of a theory of human cultural and bio-social development commonly referred to as cultural-historical psychology, and leader of the Vygotsky Circle.
- he was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
- he is known for his theory on psychosocial development of human beings. He may be most famous for coining the phrase identity crisis.
- Piaget's theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology".
- he was a French pyschologist who invented the first practical IQ test, the Binet-Simon test.
- he was an American psychologist best known for his theory of stages of moral development