Name BASAL GANGLIA
Main function of the direct pathway on the basal ganglia
Stimulate motor cortex and promote movements
Main function of the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia
Decrease the cortical excitation level and to supress unwanted movements
The direct pathway uses which neurotransmitters ?
The indirect pathway uses which neurotransmitters ?
Cortex stimulates the ______ , which uses GABA and_______, then fibers from the striatum estimulate GABA neurons in the _________,______ segment producing desinhibition , this way the motor nucleus of the _________ projects back to the motor cortex.
Uses: GABA-substance P
Globus pallidus the internal segment
motor nucleus of the thalamus
Desinhibition of the indirect pathway is betwee ?
Neuron of the striatun which use gaba and enkephalin, between neurons of the subthalamic nucleus which use glutamate.
Patient presents with:
- Slow movements
- no Facial expression
- Tremor in he hands at rest
- feels depression
- stooped posture
- Limbs rigidity
- cogwheel rigidity
- Pill rolling tremor
- Shuffling gait
Lewy bodies is seen in ?
Loss of pigmented dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra produce ________, known causes are ?
- Toxic (MPTP)
Degeneration of ?
Autosomal dominant -late onset-anticipation-trinucleotide repeat
Degeneration of GABAergic neurons in the striatum
- Personality changes
Tremor, Asterixis, parkinsonian symptoms, chorea,neuropsychiatric symptoms
Hepatitis or cirrohsis
Kayser Fleischer rings
copper accumulation in liver,eye and brain
Treatment for Huntingonds disease
Lesion of the subthalamic nucleus is related to ?
motor and verbal tics
Slow prolonged movements involving mainly truncal musculature
SLOW wormlike involuntary movements
, that are more noticeable in hands and fingers
Involuntary movements that are purposless, quick jerks superimposed to voluntary movements.
Violent involuntary projectile movements of a limb.