Basal Ganglia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basal Ganglia Deck (19):
1

Name BASAL GANGLIA

Caudate

Putamen

Globus pallidus

Subthalamic

Substancia nigra

2

Main function of the direct pathway on the basal ganglia

Stimulate motor cortex and promote movements

3

Main function of the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia

 

Decrease the cortical excitation level and to supress unwanted movements

4

The direct pathway uses which neurotransmitters ?

GABA

Substance P

Dopamine

5

The indirect pathway uses which neurotransmitters ?

Acetylcholine

GABA

ENkephalin

6

Direct pathway

Cortex stimulates the ______ , which uses GABA and_______, then fibers from the striatum estimulate GABA neurons in the _________,______ segment producing desinhibition , this way the motor nucleus of the _________ projects back to the motor cortex.

Striatum

Uses: GABA-substance P

Globus pallidus the internal segment

motor nucleus of the thalamus

7

Desinhibition of the indirect pathway is betwee ?

Neuron of the striatun which use gaba and enkephalin, between neurons of the subthalamic nucleus which use glutamate.

8

Patient presents with:

  • Slow movements
  • no Facial expression
  • Tremor in he hands at rest
  • feels depression
  • stooped posture
  • Limbs rigidity

Parkinsons disease

  • cogwheel rigidity
  • Pill rolling tremor
  • Shuffling gait
  • Bradykinesia

9

Lewy bodies is seen in ?

Parkinsons disease

10

Loss of pigmented dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra produce ________, known causes are ?

Parkinsons disease

  • Infection
  • Vascular
  • Toxic (MPTP)

11

HUNTINGON DISEASE

Signs /symptoms

Degeneration of ?

Autosomal dominant -late onset-anticipation-trinucleotide repeat

Chromosome 4

Degeneration of GABAergic neurons in the striatum

  • Chorea
  • Athethosis
  • Personality changes
  • Dementia

 

12

Tremor, Asterixis, parkinsonian symptoms, chorea,neuropsychiatric symptoms

Hepatitis or cirrohsis

Kayser Fleischer rings

WILSONS DISEASE

copper accumulation in liver,eye and brain

Autosomal recessive

13

Treatment for Huntingonds disease

Antipsychotic

Benzodiazepines

anticolvunsivants

14

Lesion of the subthalamic nucleus is related to ?

Hemiballism

hypertensive patients

15

TOURETTES SYNDROME

motor and verbal tics

Uncontrolled words

 

16

Slow prolonged movements involving mainly truncal musculature

DYSTONIA

17

SLOW wormlike involuntary movements
, that are more noticeable in hands and fingers

ATHETOSIS

18

CHOREA

Involuntary movements that are purposless, quick jerks superimposed to voluntary movements.

19

Ballisms

Violent involuntary projectile movements of a limb.