Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (28):
What are the 3 types of cell adhesion molecules (CAM)?
1. Gap junctions - cell to cell communication, transport of water
2. Tight junctions - prevent solutes from leaking
3. Desmosomes - connect cells
Product of glycolysis
2 ATP 2 NADH
5 enzymes of glycolysis
1. Hexokinase and glucokinase - irreversible - glucose > g6p
-traps glucose in cell
-inhibited by product
2. PFK - rate limiting - f6p > f16p
-inhibited by ATP and glucagon
-insulin stimulates PFK2, which converts f6p > f26p, which stimulates PFK1
3. G3PD - oxidation to g3p > 13biphosphoglycerate
4. 3phosphoglycerate kinase - substrate lvl phosphorylation
5. Pyruvate kinase - irreversible - later reaction of glycolysis - activated by f16p
What is the key to fermentation?
Lactate dehydrogenase - oxidizes NADH to NAD+
Important intermediates of glycolysis
1. DHAP - formed from f16biphosphate - converted to g3p then glycerol
2. 13BPG and PEP - used to generate ATP
What decreases hemoglobins affinity for oxygen?
Galactose + glucose
Alpha 1, 4 vs alpha 1, 6 bonds
Alpha 1, 6 bonds = branching
What stimulates glycogen phosphorylase and what does it break down? What is it inhibited by?
Glucagon (liver) and AMP and epinephrine (skeletal muscle)
Alpha 1,4 bonds
Pentode phosphate pathway
Production of NADPH (electron donor) and involves G6PD
Ways to produce acetyl coA
Glycolysis - pyruvate dehydrogenase
Fatty acid oxidation
Amino acid catabolism - transamination
Ketones - when pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibited
Alcohol - coupled with NADH buildup, so acetyl coA used to make fatty acids
Substrates of the citric acid cycle
Please Can I Keep Selling Seashells For Money Officer?
Products of pyruvate dehydrogenase + CAC
25 ATP per glucose
12.5 per pyruvate
Checkpoints of CAC
1. Citrate synthase
2. Isocitrate dehydrogenase
3. Alpha ketoglutarate
-ATP + NADH act as inhibitors (negative feedback)
What promotes CAC?
High lols of ADP + NAD+
How many complexes does the ETC have?
How does OAA pass membranes?
Converted to malate
Harnessing chemical energy of ETC to make ADP > ATP
-uses Fo, which acts as an ion channel
F1 portion of ATP synthase spins to facilitate harnessing of gradient energy for ADP > ATP
Regulation of oxidative phosphorylation
O2 and ADP
- NADH + FADH2 accumulate and inhibit CAC
What breaks down of TGs in adipose?
Hormone sensitive lipase, which is stimulated by a drop in insulin or increased epinephrine and cortisol
What breaks down chylomicrons and VLDL?
How are TGs and cholesterol transported in the blood?
Rank the lipoproteins
VLDL - made in liver - mainly TGs
LDL - mainly cholesterol
HDL - mainly cholesterol
Protein portion of lipoproteins
Sources of cholesterol
LDL, HDL, citrate shuttle (acetyl CoA and ATP)
What is the only FA that humans can synthesize?