Flashcards in Biological Molecules Deck (50):
- Low viscosity: water flows easily through blood vessels
- Transparent: light passes through easily - photosynthesis
- Universal solvent: can dissolve molecules
- Floats when solid, ice insulates water and keeps it warm
Organic molecules associated with living things.
Carbohydrates- carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. Glucose, mitochondria.
Lipids- Phospholipid bi layer
Proteins- Ribosomes, nucleus
Nucleic acids- Nucleus
Contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Energy storage (Starch)
Cellulose of cell walls of plants
Receptors on the cell membrane of cells
One sugar unit
Eg. Glucose, fructose
Two sugar units
Eg. Lactose, sucrose
More than one sugar unit
Eg. Starch, cellulose
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
- Chlorophyll is a lipid
- Phospholipid bi layer in a cell ( lipid tail part)
Typical type of LIPID
- Consists of 3 fatty acids and glycerol
Can be made by removing a fatty acid from a triglyceride and adding a phosphate component
What are the functions of fats and oils?
1. Energy storage
2. Cushions and insulates the body and nerves eg. Fats in myelin sheath
3. Forms key parts of cell membrane
Made up of amino acids
Roles: Enzymes eg. Lipase
Form structural components of cells eg. Cell membrane
Hormones eg. Insulin
Transport eg. Haemoglobin
The study of proteins and their functions
All the proteins found in the human body
Make up proteins
- 20 different types of amino acids
- All proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
Genetic material of all organisms
Two types: DNA and RNA
Determine features of an organism
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus
Found in nucleus and ribosomes
Function: To make ribosomes and involved in protein synthesis
Found in nucleus, mitochondria( used to be unicellular organisms) , chloroplasts ( DNA from absorbed organisms)
Function: holds genetic material
Make up DNA and RNA
Why are cells so small?
- Nutrients and waste move across a cell surface by diffusion
- Substances absorbed and waste removed
- As the size of an object increases the SA:V decreases
What determines the rate of diffusion?
Passive movement of a substance from a region of high concentration to one of low concentration.
No ATP used
Passive movement of water from a dilute solution to a more concentrated.
No ATP used
Moves from lots of water to little water.
Movement of a substance from a region of low concentration to one of high concentration.
Requires energy ( uses ATP )
Passive movement of a substance along the concentration gradient aided by protein transporters in the cell membrane.
Gradual change in the concentration of a solutes in a solution as a function of distance through a solution.
Active movement of substances out of a cell by the use of vesicles that fuse with the cell membrane. Substances that cross the cell membrane by this method are often LARGE.
Substances entering a cell same way as Exocytosis
ACTIVE ( uses ATP )
Membrane surrounds substances and brings it into cell.
Fat based molecules can move easily through membrane (eg. Fatty acids)
Very small things ( oxygen, carbon dioxide, pure water )
Substances that dissolve in water eg. Glucose, nucleic acids, amino acids
Cannot move through a membrane so will come through by types of passive/ active transport
Enzymes act as biological catalysts that speeds up chemical reactions by lowering activation energy.
Can enzymes be used over and over again?
The initial input of energy into a chemical reaction
Lock and key hypothesis
The fit b/w substrate and active site of enzyme is exact.
Explains enzyme specificity but does not explain how some enzymes can react with structurally similar substrates
Temporary structure formed when active site and substrate fit together.
Induced fit model
Substrate induces a slight change in the shape of the enzyme when it binds with it
Non protein substance that must bind to certain enzymes in order for that enzyme to work
Permanently bonded cofactors
Factors affecting enzymes
Requirement in shortest supply
Effect of pH
Extreme pH levels will denature an enzyme (above or below optimal pH)
Effect of temperature
Too high a temp results in denaturation
Cooler temps slow down reactions
Chemicals that reduce the rate of enzymic reactions
Compete with substrate for the active site, if it's there then the substrate can't fit