How many cervical bones are there?
What is the name of the first cervical bone?
What is the name of the second cervical bone?
What can happen to cartilages with age?
They can ossify
What are the posterior neck regions?
- Back of the neck/Vertebral region
- Posterior triangle
- Sternomastoid region
What are the anterior neck regions?
- Anterior triangle
- Root of the neck
What does sternocleidomastoid do?
Rotates and flexes the neck.
What lies deep to sternocleidomastoid?
What forms the roof of the neck?
The lower part of sternocleidomastoid, giving direct access to the thorax.
What are anterior and posterior to sternocleidomastoid?
Anterior and posterior triangles.
Where does the anterior triangle extend from?
Base from above across the mandible to down below to the root of the neck.
Where does the posterior triangle extend?
- Its apex is located above just behind sternomastoid and broadens out into a base below.
- It’s important in transmitting structure to the upper limb and back (nerves, arteries and veins).
- E.g. brachial plexus passes via posterior triangle into upper limb.
What is the posterior triangle important in transmitting?
Nerves, arteries and veins to the upper limb and back
What passes via the posterior triangle to the upper limb?
Brachial plexus, arteries and veins.
What are the 5 different fascial layers of the neck?
- Superficial fascia
- Deep cervical fascia (4 layers):
- Investing layer
- Pretracheal layer
- Prevertebral layer
- Carotid sheath
What sits in the carotid sheath?
Common carotid, internal jugular vein and vagus nerve tucked behind.
What does the investing layer invest?
Sternomastoid and trapezius.
Why is the fascia of the carotid sheath thin and expansible?
To allow for distension of the internal jugular vein.
What effect do the fascial layers have on infection in the neck?
They allow blood, pus and infective material to track up or down, but are partitioned off by the fascia.
What shape does the cervical spine have?
Why does the cervical spine have a lordotic curve?
Due to the shape and size of the IV discs
How is the cervical lordosis maintained?
‘Postvertebral’ muscles extend the head on the neck, extend the cervical spine & help maintain cervical lordosis.
How does the lordotic curve develop?
- As posterior neck muscles develop, infant is able to lift its head up, creating a secondary curvature in the cervical spine, referred to as a lordotic curve.
- This is primarily due to the shapes of the IV discs, not so much due to the vertebrae themselves.
Why does the head tend to rotate forwards?
- Because the centre of gravity tends to sit anterior to the axis of rotation.
- Hence why powerful posterior extensor muscles are required to maintain position of the head.
What are the transverse masses off the cervical vertebrae?
Anterior and posterior tubercles joined by the transverse bar.
What are the transverse foraminae?
The hole located in the transverse mass between the anterior and posterior tubercles.
How is the transverse mass positioned?
Not positioned directly laterally, rather somewhat oblique.
What does the transverse foramen transmit?
Why are the spinous processes of the cervical spine bifid?
Because there are so many muscles and ligaments trying to gain attachment that it increases its surface area to allow for attachment.
Which cervical vertebra has the longest spinous process?