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Flashcards in Cardiology Deck (27):
1

Fick principle

CO = (rate of O2 consumption) / (arterial O2 content - venous O2 content)

2

Mean arterial pressure

MAP = CO * TPR
= 2/3 diastolic pressure + 1/3 systolic

3

Laplace's law

relationship of wall thickness and afterload
Wall tension = (pressure*radius)/(2*wall thickness)

4

Resistance

R = Delta P / Q
= 8*viscosity*length / pi * r^4

5

S3

Increased filling pressures.
2/2 CHF, MR

6

S4

Stiff ventricle during atrial systole.

7

Cardiac and vascular tone curves

Change inotropy: CO changes (same x intercept)

Change volume, venous tone: Venous return changes (including x-intercept)

Change TPR, both change (same x intercepts).

8

Ventricular action potential

0: Na current
1: Na current
2: K + Ca current
3: Ca current
4: K current

9

Pacemaker action potential

4: Na current, funny
0: Ca current
3: K current

10

Conduction spead

Purkinje > atria > ventricles > AV node.

11

Rheumatic fever

Fever
Erythema marginatum
Valvular damage
ESR up
Red-hot joints (migratory polyarthritis)
Subcutaneous nodules
St. Vitus' dance (Sydenham chorea)

Hsto: Aschoff bodies (granulomas with giant cells), which include Anitschkow cells (enlarged marcophages with ovoid waxy rod like nucleus).

12

Temporal arteritis

Large vessel

focal granulomatous inflammation
Associated with polymyalgia rheumatica

13

Polyarteritis nodosa

Medium vessel

Young adults, hep B positive in 30%.
Abdominal pain, melena, fever, weight loss, HTN,
Neuro dysfunction, cutaneous eruptions

Typically renal and visceral vessels.
Immune complex mediated.

Histo: transmural inflammation of arterial wall.
Microaneurysms.

14

Kawasaki dz

Medium vessel

Fever, cervical lymphadenitis, conjunctival injection, changes in lips/oral mucosa (strawberry tongue), hand-food erythema, desquamating rash.

May develop coronary artery aneurysms.

Tx: IVIG, ASA

15

Buerger dz (thromboangitis obliterans)

Medium-vessel

Smokers.
Intermittent claudication, possible gangrene and ulcers, superficial nodular phlebitis.

Segmental thrombosing vasculitis.

Sensitive to intradermal tobacco extract

16

Granulomatosis with polyangitis (wegener)

Small vessel

Triad:
-Focal necrotizing vasculitis
-Necrotizing granulomas in lung and upper airway
-Necrotizing glomerulonephritis

c-ANCA

17

Microscopic polyangitis

Small vessel

Similar to granulomatosis with poly angitis without nasopharyngeal involvement.

MPO-ANCA/p-ANCA

18

Churg-strauss

Small vessel

Asthma, sinusitis, palpable purpura, peripheral neuropathy

Also can involve heart, GI, kidnes (pauciimmune glomerulonephritis)

Histo: granulomatous, necrotizing vasculitis with eosinophilia

p-ANCA, elevated IgE

19

Henoch-Shonlein purpura

Small vessel

2/2 IgA complex deposition. Often post-URI

Abdominal pain
Purpura
Arthralgia

20

P450 inducers/inhibitors

Induce:
-carbamazapine
-phenobarbital
-Phenytoin
-Rifampin
-Griseofulvin

Inhibitors:
Cimetidine
-Cipro
-Erythromycin/clarithromycin
-Azoles
-Grapefruit juice
-Isoniazid
-Ritonavir (protease inhibitors)

21

Antiarrhythmics
Ia

Double Quarter Pounder

Disopyramidine
Quinidine
Procainamide

Increase AP time.

Atrial and ventricular

22

Antiarrhythmics
Ib

Lettuce, Mayo, Tomato

Lidocaine
Mexiletine
Tocainide

Decrease AP time.

Ventricular
Especially post-MI

23

Antiarrhythmics
Ic

More fries please

Moricizine
Flecainide
Propafenone

AP the same.

SVTs

24

Antiarrhythmics
II

beta-blockers

SVT,
Slow ventricle during a-fib/flutter

25

Antiarrhythmics
III

K+ blockers

Amiodarone, ibutilide, dofetilide, sotalol (also beta blocker)

a-fib/flutter
V-tack (amiodarone, sotalol)

26

Antiarrhythmics
IV

Ca2+ blockers

Verapamil, diltiazem

prevent nodal arrhythmias (e.g. SVT)
Rate control in a-fib with RVR

27

Drugs that induce lupus

hydralazine
procainamide
isoniazid
minocycline
quinide