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Flashcards in Cardiovascular/Respiratory Deck (184):
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List the component and characteristics of each circuit of the vascular system

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1

Learn cardiac anatomy and flow through the heart

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2

Differentiate cardiac muscle from other types of muscle

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3

he pulmonary from the systemic circulation ????

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4

Name the structures of heart anatomy

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5

Define and contrast: endocardium, myocardium and pericardium

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6

Explain the structure and function of papillary muscles, chordae tendineae, interventricular septum

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7

Name the heart valves

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8

Explain the mechanism of valve opening and closure

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9

Trace the flow of blood through the entire cardiovascular system

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10

List and describe the three variables that determine the pump function of the heart

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11

Define and contrast systole and diastole

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12

Define and explain the concepts of "preload", "afterload", and "contractility".

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13

Graph the relationship between end-diastolic volume and stroke volume

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14

Describe the relationship, mechanism, and importance of preload as it relates to contractility

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15

Define, explain, and illustrate "Starlings Law"

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16

Describe the hemodynamic relationship between preload and: venous return, venoconstriction, volume status, ventricular compliance, sympathetic ANS activity, contractility, myocardial stretch, stroke volume

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17

Define end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, ventricular filling

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18

Illustrate the relationship between: EDV, contractility, and cardiac output

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19

Define contractility and explain why it is important for cardiac output

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20

Define the terms inotropy, chronotropy, dromotropy, and lusitropy

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21

Explain the molecular mechanism of Beta-1 agonist causing increased inotropy.

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22

List two negative Inotropic effectors

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23

Define and calculate ejection fraction

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24

Memorize the normal EF and describe what it means clinically

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25

Explain the mechanism of digitalis

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26

Define afterload

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27

Graph the relationship of afterload to cardiac output.

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28

Explain the concept of afterload and describe its relationship to preload and contractility

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29

Explain the relationship of afterload to vascular resistance

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30

List 3 causes of high afterload

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31

Graph the preload against cardiac output with respect to the variables: heart rate, contractility, and afterload

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32

List the four major factors that contribute to cardiac output

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33

Memorize and explain the formula for calculating cardiac output (CO)

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34

Describe the effects of sympathetic, parasympathetic, venous return and EDV on CO

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35

Illustrate the mechanism that the ANS controls heart rate

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36

Describe the relationship between EDV, ESV, and SV

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37

Explain Fick's Law for calculating CO

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38

Explain central venous pressure, how it develops, what it means, and how it is controlled.

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39

Explain the relationship between CVP and SV

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40

Define the four heart sounds

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41

Describe and illustrate the relationship of the following parameters during the cardiac cycle: systole and diastole; heart sounds; EKG tracing; ventricular volume; ventricular pressure; and valve closures (reproduce the events of the cardiac cycle)

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42

List and explain the phases within systole and diastole.

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43

Explain the physiological significance of atrial kick

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44

Describe the significance of pathological heart sounds (S3, S4)

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45

Reproduce the pressure volume loops of the cardiac cycle, explaining the phases of "isovolumetric" aspects

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46

Delineate the ANS innervation of the heart

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47

Diagram the pathway of electrical conduction thru the heart

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48

Illustrate and explain the phases of the EKG tracing with electrical activity in the heart and the mechanical activity

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49

Define "electro-mechanical" disassociation or (EMD). Why is this important?

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50

List the primary causes of EMD

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51

Describe the details of the 5 phases of ventricular myocyte action potential.

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52

Describe the details of the 3 phases of the pacemaker potential in the SA node

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53

List the mechanisms of the slope phase of SA node potential and the effects of ANS

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54

Reproduce Einthoven Triangle and explain the 3 primary leads (I,II,III)

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55

Explain the major vector of electrical activity, isoelectric, positive and negative

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56

Explain the 9 additional leads that comprise the 12-lead EKG

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57

Describe the physiological basis of each wave and interval on the EKG

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58

Explain the basic mechanisms of arrhythmia generation within the heart and specifically describe and pattern identify: sinus rhythm, atrial tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, AV-block, and sick sinus syndrome

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59

Describe the structure and functional aspects of: arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins

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60

Name the major "arteries" of the CV system (major branches of the aorta) and list what structures these arteries perfuse

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61

Describe the innervation of "arterioles"

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62

Contrast the 3 types of capillaries

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63

Define and discuss the equation for "blood flow velocity" explaining its relation to flow and cross sectional area

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64

Describe the relationship of blood flow to resistance and pressure differential

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65

Define and explain the contrast between absolute pressure and driving pressure

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66

Reproduce Poiseuille's Equation

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67

Explain the variables that determine resistance to flow (R) and how these effect flow

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68

Contrast and compare "R" in series from "R" in parallel, giving examples of each in physiology

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69

Contrast and identify flow patterns at rest and in vigorous exercise

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70

Contrast laminar from turbulent flow and formulate physiological or pathological processes that would initiate these flow patterns

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71

Explain the mechanisms of blood flow regulation: local control and central control

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72

Summarize the following: myogenic mechanism, active and reactive hyperemia, autoregulation, ANS control

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73

List the circulations that primarily utilize local and/or central flow mechanisms

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74

Define compliance

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75

Articulate and summarize vascular compliance as it relates to: venous return, arterial pressure, preload, afterload, and myocardial contractility

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76

Define and contrast systolic from diastolic pressure

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77

Define pulse pressure and list two things that would increase or decrease PP

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78

Calculate MAP

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79

Give the formula of MAP

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80

Describe MAP as it relations to CO & TPR

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81

Define and explain TPR and list two physiological variables that effect

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82

List the hormones or chemical that effect TPR and know the direction of effect

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83

Describe the process of BP measurement, Korotokoff sounds, and average or normal readings of BP in adults

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84

Contrast high BP (HTN) from pre-HTN from ideal and low

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85

Diagram the factors that affect CO, and TPR, and thus MAP

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86

Relate VR to MAP

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87

Describe the effect of exercise on TPR, HR, CO, BP

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88

Outline and explain the baroreceptor reflex

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89

Outline and explain the RAS system

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90

List the triggers that result in renin release

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91

What is the MAP (in mmHg) required to increase renin release?

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92

List the three major effects of AT II

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93

Describe cushing reflex and explain its significance

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94

List the effects of ADH and BNP

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95

Describe the chemoreceptor mechanism and the process of maintaining homeostasis

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96

Define "high blood pressure"

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97

List the three major mechanisms for essential HTN

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98

Contrast essential HTN from secondary

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99

List three etiologies of secondary HTN

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100

Contrast stage I from stage II HTN

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101

Describe the following mechanisms for HTN intervention: Renin blockade, ACEI, ARB, Aldosterone inhibitors, diuretics, vasodilators, beta blockers

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102

Contrast tight from leaky capillaries

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103

Describe the process of capillary exchange

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104

List the Starling Forces

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105

Reproduce Starling Equation

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106

List the Starling forces that increase filtration and explain why

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107

List the two primary forces that determine capillary exchange

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108

Define "third spacing" and explain its relevance to physiology and pathology

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109

Define Anasarca

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110

List four examples of "third spaces"

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111

List 4 factors that increase capillary hydrostatic pressure (Pc)

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112

Contrast the three major categories of Third Spacing and give examples of each

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113

Diagram the process of lymphatic flow and define lymphokinetic motion

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114

Recall the average percentages of blood flow at rest and contrast this with exercise

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115

Explain the regulation of flow during rest and exercise.

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116

List the factors that drive VR and explain each

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117

Explain the relationship of VR to EDV, preload, Starlings Law and SV

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118

Outline and diagram the coronary circulation

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119

List the three mechanisms that regulate coronary flow

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120

Diagram the Circle of Willis and list the regulation mechanism of cerebral flow

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121

Describe the regulation of blood flow in skeletal muscle at rest and exercise

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122

Outline the Splanchnic circulation

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123

Describe the control of flow to the skin

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124

Outline and explain the CV response to gravity, hemorrhage, and exercise

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125

Compare and contrast long-term from short-term reflexes following blood loss

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126

State the constituents of blood: components of plasma, blood cell types and subtypes, and relative percentages and major function of each blood cell type (RBC, WBC's, Platelets)

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127

Know the overall metabolism of Iron; role of transferrin, ferritin, bilirubin, B-12, folate, erythropoietin

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128

Describe the structure and function of hemoglobin (Hb)

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129

Explain the process and definition of Hb saturation

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130

Define and delineate Anemia as a disease process and understand the various types

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131

Recall and illustrate the major steps involved in the blood clotting process; intrinsic and extrinsic, common pathway

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132

List the major steps of the thrombolysis pathway

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133

Understand the major functions of platelets and formulate the process of platelet activation, adhesion, and plug formation

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134

Describe the inhibitors of platelet aggregation and activation

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135

Describe the structural organization of the respiratory system; down to the alveoli, the site of gas exchange

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136

Illustrate or describe the "respiratory membrane" and label each layer

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137

Contrast type I and type II alveolar cells

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138

Illustrate the structure of the chest wall and the pleural cavity

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139

Define ventilation and reproduce the equation describing airflow

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140

Define Boyle's Law

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141

Contrast Transpulmonary pressure from transmural pressure

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142

Write the equation for Ptp

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143

Explain the basis of negative Pip

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144

Describe the pressure changes during a respiratory cycle

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145

Contrast the physiology of inspiration and expiration

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146

Explain the concept of lung compliance

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147

Explain "surface tension"

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148

List 6 important facts about surfactant and explain how it works to precent atelectasis

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149

Describe the factors that create airway resistance

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150

Explain the mechanism responsible for increased airway resistance during expiration

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151

Explain the pathogenesis of asthma and COPD

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152

Illustrate and define the following lung volumes: TV, IRV, ERV, VC, IC, FRV, RV

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153

Contrast anatomical dead space from alveolar dead space

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154

Define and explain the concept of RQ

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155

Define Dalton's Law

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156

Calculate oxygen partial pressure given atmospheric pressure

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157

Define Henry's Law

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158

List the normal values for PAO2, PaO2, PCO2

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159

Define the A-a gradient and explain its significance in respiratory pathology

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160

List the effects of various conditions of alveolar gas pressures

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161

Contrast hyperventilation and hypoventilation

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162

Describe the process of gas exchange between alveoli and blood

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163

Define and explain ventilation-perfusion inequality

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164

Contrast shunt and dead space on pathology

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165

Illustrate the structure of a hemoglobin molecule

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166

Define Hb saturation

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167

Illustrate the Hb-O2 dissociation curve, describing the physiological significance of each portion of the curve

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168

Describe the effects of DPG, H+ and PCO2 and O2 on saturation

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169

Describe the neurological control of respiration

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170

List and describe the four causes of hypoxic hypoxia

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171

Define minute ventilation

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172

Explain the pathogenesis of pneumothorax

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173

Describe the neurophysiology of lung mechanics

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174

Describe the function of ventilation and lung mechanics.

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175

Explain the process of exchange of gases in alveoli and in tissues.

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176

Describe the effect of PO2 on hemoglobin saturation; PCO2 and H+ concentration

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177

Explain the transport of carbon dioxide in blood; hydrogen ions between tissue and lung

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178

Understand ventilation and perfusion at the lung mechanics and alveolar level

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179

Understand the mechanism of hypoxia and respiratory failure

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180

Contrast respiratory failure from insufficiency

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181

Describe the non-respiratory function of the lungs

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182

Explain why V/Q abnormalities affect O2 more than CO2

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183

Explain the process of acclimatization to high altitude

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