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NUR 102- Test 4 > Cardiovascular System - A&P > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular System - A&P Deck (42):
1

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What is the protective sac that surrounds the three layers of tissues in the heart and anchors the heart to surrounding structures?

Pericardium

2

Cardiovascular System - A&P

Name the two layers of the pericardium.

Parietal pericardium (the outermost layer)
Visceral pericardium (AKA epicardium) (adheres to the heart surface)

3

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What is the outermost layer of the heart wall called?

Epicardium

4

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What is the middle layer of the epicardium called?

Myocardium (heart muscle)

5

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What is the innermost layer that lines the inside of the heart's chambers and great vessels of the epicardium called?

Endocardium

6

Cardiovascular System - A&P

Which chamber of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the veins of the body via the superior and inferior vena cava?

The right atrium

7

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What atrioventricular valve separates the right atrium and the right ventricle?

The tricuspid valve.

Remember: "Try before you Buy"

8

Cardiovascular System - A&P

Which chamber of the heart receives freshly oxygenated blood from the lungs through the pulmonary veins?

The left atrium

9

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What atrioventricular valve separates the left atrium and the left ventricle?

Bicuspid or mitral valve

10

Cardiovascular System - A&P

When is the first heart sound heard? What is this sound called?

S1 ("lub"). Occurs when the AV valves close as the ventricles start to contract producing the first heart sound.

11

Cardiovascular System - A&P

When is the second heart sound heard? What is this sound called?

S2 "dup". Occurs as the ventricles start to relax after contraction, and the semilunar valves close.

12

Cardiovascular System - A&P

Within the heart's conduction system, what is the heart's pacemaker called? Where is it located?

The sinoatrial (SA) node. It is located in the wall of the right atrium.

13

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What must be in place in order to generate an electrical pulse in the heart?

Automaticity
Excitability
Conductivity

14

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What is Automaticity?

The ability to initiate an electrical impulse

15

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What is Excitability?

The ability of a cell to respond to a stimulus

16

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What is Conductivity?

The ability to transmit impulses from one cell to another.

17

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What is a normal heart rate?

60-100 bpm

18

Cardiovascular System - A&P

Explain diastole.

Occurs when the ventricles fill, when they are relaxed.

19

Cardiovascular System - A&P

Explain systole.

It is when the ventricles contract, ejecting blood into the pulmonary and systemic circuits.

20

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What is the stroke volume?

It is a certain amount of blood (usually about 70 mL) ejected from the heart with each contraction.

21

Cardiovascular System - A&P

Explain diastole.

Occurs when the ventricles fill, when they are relaxed.

22

Cardiovascular System - A&P

Explain systole.

It is when the ventricles contract, ejecting blood into the pulmonary and systemic circuits.

23

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What is the stroke volume?

It is a certain amount of blood (usually about 70 mL) ejected from the heart with each contraction.

24

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What is cardiac output determined by?

1) Heart Rate
2) Preload
3) Afterload
4) Contractility

25

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What is preload?

It is the amount of blood in the ventricles before contraction (the ventricles stretches the muscle fibers causing them to contract more forcefully.)

26

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What is afterload?

It is the force the ventricles must develop to push blood into the circulation.

27

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What is contractility? Why is this necessary?

It is the natural ability of the cardiac muscle fibers to shorten during systole. It is necessary to move blood into the circulation.

28

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What is peripheral vascular resistance (PVR)?

It is the force opposing blood flow.

29

Cardiovascular System - A&P

What determines peripheral vascular resistance (PVR)?

1) Blood viscosity (thickness)
2) Vessel length
3) Vessel diameter

30

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Text Book - Chapter 15

A client with mitral valve stenosis is admitted to the medical unit. The nurse knows that this disorder will affect:

A. blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle.
B. blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle.
C. blood flow from the right ventricle to the lungs.
D. blood flow from the left ventricle to the body.

B. blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle.

30

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Text Book - Chapter 15

Ventricular systole corresponds with which waveform on the ECG?

A. the P wave
B. the QRS complex
C. the T wave
D. the S-T segment

B. the QRS complex

Rationale:
The QRS complex corresponds with ventricular systole (contraction). The P wave corresponds with atrial contraction, and the T wave with repolarization of the ventricles. The ST segment is the period between ventricular polarization as indicated by the QRS complex, and repolarization, as indicated by the T wave.

31

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Text Book - Chapter 15

Which of the following factors have a significant effect on peripheral vascular resistance? Select all that apply.

A. the number of capillaries
B. length of blood vessels
C. blood vessel diameter
D. Position of the body
E. viscosity of the blood
F. age of the client.

B. length of blood vessels
C. blood vessel diameter
E. viscosity of the blood

32

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Workbook - Chapter 15

The AV valves close as the ventricles start to contract, producing the first heart sound called:

A. S1
B. S2
C. S3
D. S4

A. S1

33

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Workbook - Chapter 15

The heart is controlled by specialized cells within the myocardium known as the:

A. nervous system.
B. respiratory system.
C. conduction system.
D. cardiac system.

C. conduction system.

34

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Workbook - Chapter 15

The sinoatrial (SA) node usually generates an impulse:

A. 40 to 60 times per minute.
B. 50 times per minute.
C. 60 to 100 times per minute.
D. 100 times per minute

C. 60 to 100 times per minute.

35

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Workbook - Chapter 15

The action potential and depolarization causes muscle to:

A. beat.
B. contract.
C. twitch.
D. elevate.

B. contract.

36

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Workbook - Chapter 15

Ventricular filling occurs when the ventricles are relaxed during:

A. systole.
B. heartbeat.
C. contraction.
D. diastole.

D. diastole.

37

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Workbook - Chapter 15

Arteries, veins, and capillaries are included in the:

A. cardiac system.
B. GI system.
C. peripheral vascular system.
D. pulmonary system.

C. peripheral vascular system.

38

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Workbook - Chapter 15

Which part of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the veins of the body?

A. Left atrium
B. Right atrium
C. Left ventricle
D. Right ventricle

B. Right atrium

39

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Workbook - Chapter 15

Which structure is known as the "pacemaker" of the heart?

A. Sinoatrial node
B. Bundle of His
C. Purkinje fibers
D. Left bundle branch

A. Sinoatrial node

40

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Workbook - Chapter 15

The force that opposes blood flow is known as:

A. arterial resistance.
B. peripheral vascular resistance.
C. ventricular resistance.
D. regurgitation.

B. peripheral vascular resistance.

41

Medical Surgical Nursing Care Workbook - Chapter 15

The bicuspid valve is also known as the:

A. pulmonary valve.
B. mitral valve.
C. aortic valve.
D. tricuspid valve.

B. mitral valve.