Flashcards in Cell Ultrastructure, Polarity, & Acidity Deck (21)
What is the equation used to calculate the pH of a solution?
pH = pK + log(base/acid) - (the Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation)
What is meant by the term ampipathic?
A molecule contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components
Describe the role of the Golgi apparatus.
The Golgi apparatus processes proteins from the smooth ER, further glycosylating them, and tagging them for transportation into vesicles towards their appropriate destination
What makes a molecule hydrophilic?
A bond within the molecule may have a dipole, meaning an uneven share of electrons between the 2 molecules forming a bond - this forms an unequal distribution of charge, making a molecule hydrophilic
Why do metabolically active tissues cause a localised decrease in pH?
Greater respiration rates produce more CO2 - when taken up by red blood cells, CO2 is converted to carbonic acid (by carbonic anhydrase)
What 2 structures to lipids form in solution?
Where are lysosomes generated?
The Golgi apparatus
Which face of the Golgi apparatus receives vesicles from the Endoplasmic reticulum?
The cis face
In which 2 ways can you differentiate the rough Endoplasmic reticulum from the smooth Endoplasmic reticulum?
Firstly, the rough Endoplasmic reticulum is associated with ribosomes while the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is not
Secondly, the rough Endoplasmic reticulum tends to be flat, while the smooth Endoplasmic reticulum tends to be tubular
What 3 groups make up the hydrophilic head of a lipid? What bond joins them all?
A glycerol, phosphate, and choline group, held together by ester bonds
List 2 functions of the plasma membrane.
- to transport molecules in and out of the cell
- for cell morphology (the cells form and structure)
What prevents lysosomes from digesting themselves?
A specialised glycocalyx on the inner surface of their membrane
What is the role of a peroxisome? Where are they abundant?
Peroxisomes oxidise unwanted molecules and hence detoxify certain areas of the body, notably the liver
Do mitochondria contain their own genetic information?
Are mitochondria inherited maternally or paternally?
They are maternally inherited
How can you tell if a molecule is hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
A molecule will be hydrophilic is it has a lot of charged residues (through a dipole) while a hydrophobic molecule will have little/no hydrop-
Are the genes in euchromatin expressed? How about the genes in heterochromatin?
The genes in euchromatin are expressed, while the genes in heterochromatin are not expressed
What is the limit of resolution? What is it reversely proportional to?
The limit of resolution is the minimum distance at which 2 objects can be distinguished - it is inversely proportional to wavelength
What does it mean if an image is unresolved? What does it mean if it is resolved?
If an image is resolved it can be seen as a distinct structure, while if it unresolved it will appear blurry and merge into the surrounding structures (it will not be distinct)
Resolution is inversely proportional to wavelength. What does this mean?
As resolution increases, wavelength decreases