Cellular Injury, Adaptation, & Death Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cellular Injury, Adaptation, & Death Deck (24):
1

Define: Hypertrophy

Increase in cell size

2

Define: Hyperplasia

Increase in cell number

3

Define: Atrophy

Decrease in cell size

4

Define: Metaplasia

Change in one type of cell to another

5

Define: Dysplasia

Change in cell organization

6

2 Components to Oxygen Depravation

1) Blood Flow

2) O2 Carriage

7

4 Types of Inflammation

1) Acute

2) Chronic

3) Antigen-driven

4) Nonantigen driven

8

8 Type of Disease Pathogenesis

1) Inflammation

2) Repair

3) Adaptive Growth

4) Change in cytoplasmic organelles

5) Necrosis

6) Apoptosis 

7) Neoplasia

8) Maldevelopment

9

3 Major Types of Change in cytoplasmic organelles 

1) Hydropic Change

2) Fatty Change

3) Lysosomal Storage

10

Most vulnerabe intracellular targets (5)

1) Plasma Membrane

2) Aerobic Respiration

3) Protein Synthesis

4) Cytoskeleton

5) Genetic Machinery

11

What types of cell injuries are usually reversible?

Acute, sublethal 

12

Characteristic Morphologic changes found in Reversible Cell Injuries (6)

1) Hydropic swelling

2) ER swelling

3) Mitochondrial swelling

4) Membrane surface blebbing

5) Ribosomal detachment

6) Nuclear disaggregation

 

13

What determines the cell's reaction to a stressor?

Frequency and Severity

14

What usually accompanies Hypertrophy?

Hyperplasia

Also linked to increase in cell function 

15

What is the most common form of metaplasia?

Replacement of Glanduar Epithelium with Squamous Cells due to persistent injury

Fully Reversible

16

What is Dysplasia often associated with?

Squamous metaplasia 

Is a pre-neoplastic condition

May or may not regress

17

Types of Necrosis (5)

1) Coagulative 

2) Liquefactive

3) Fat

4) Caseous

5) Fibrinoid

18

Coagulative Necrosis

  • Denaturation of proteins with preservation of cell outline
  • Nuclear dissolution/pyknosis (nuclear shrinkage)
  • Ischemia is most important cause
  • Characteristic of: hypoxic cell death (except in brain)

19

Liquefactive Necrosis

  • Cell digested into a viscous mass
  • characteristic of: bacterial/fungal infections

20

Fat Necrosis

  • Fat destruction
  • Characteristic of: Actue Pancreatitis
  • from release of active pancreatic enzymes into tissue

21

Caseous Necrosis

  • Special type of coagulative necrosis
  • Granulomas and Macrophages present in area
  • looks like cottage cheese
  • Characteristic of: Tuberculous infection & granulomatous inflammation

22

FIbrinoid Necrosis

  • Injured blood vessels in arteriolar wall
  • accumulation of plasma proteins that cause vessel walls to stain intensely with eosin

23

Characteristics of Apoptosis

1) Genetically determined

2) endonuclease mediated

3) cell shrinkage

4) Cytoplasm stays intact

5) cell becomes membrane bound apoptotic bodies that are phagocytosed

24

What is Apoptosis mediated by?

Endonucleases