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Flashcards in Cerebellum & Brainstem Deck (62):
1

Cerebellar Function

-"comparator" that compensates for error in movement by comparing intention with performance
-coordination of somatic motor activity (reg. muscle tone & equilibrium)
-cognition, emotion, affective processing
-sequencing incoming sensory patterns & detecting temporal changes in the sequence of sensory events
-anticipate & smooth out movements of trunk/limbs by slow feedback pathways (improve motor) & fast forward mech. that regulates second to second movements & keeps them on track

2

Vermis & Paravermian Control?

-axial musculature (neck, trunk)

3

Lateral Hemispheres of Cerebellum control?

-limbs (arms, legs)

4

Flocculonodular Lobe controls?

-maintaining balance

5

Lateral Hemispheres of Cerebellum project to what nuclei?

-dentate nuclei

6

The Paravermal Zones of Cerebellum project to what nuclei?

-globose & emboliform (interpositus nuclei)

7

The Vermis of Cerebellum projects to what nuclei?

-fastigial nuclei

8

Afferents & Efferents: Superior Cerebellar Peduncle

Afferents: Anterior Spinocerebellar Tract
Acoustic & Optic Information
Efferents: Dentatorubrothalamic Tract
Dentatothalamic Tract

9

Afferents & Efferents: Middle Cerebellar Peduncle

Afferents: Pontocerebellar Tract
Efferents: none

10

Afferents & Efferents: Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle

Afferents: Vestibulocerebellar Tract
Olivocerebellar Tract
Posterior Spinocerebellar Tract
Efferents: Cerebellovestibular Tract
Cerebelloolivary Tract

11

Dentatothalamic Tracts

-carry info from the lateral portions of the anterior & posterior cerebellar cortices to the thalamus & onto the contralateral motor cortex to coordinate movement in the limbs ipsilateral to the cerebellar hemisphere of origin

12

Cerebelloolivary Fibers

-carry info from the vermis & flocculonodular lobes through the EGF nuclei to the vestibular nuclei, the olivary nuclei, & the brainstem reticular formation

13

Cerebellar Cortex

-gray matter
-3 layers:
Molecular layer - Basket & Stellate cells
Purkinje Cell layer - Purkinje cells
Granule cell layer - Golgi & Granule Cells
-5 different neuron types

14

What are the only output neurons of the cerebellar cortex?

-Purkinje cells

15

What is the only direct imput to the Purkinje cells from outside the cerebelum?

-climbing fibers that have their origin in the olivary nuclei

16

Mossy Fibers

-imput to perkinje cells that first synapse in the cerebellar glomeruli (synapse with granule * golgi cell dendrites & with Golgi axon terminals)
-Granule cells then pass on info to Purkinje cell

17

Stellate & Basket Cells

-inhibitory effect on Purkinje cells

18

3 Functional Divisions of Cerebellum

-Vestibulocerebellum
-Spinocerebellum
-Cerebrocerebellum

19

Function of Vestibulocerebellum

-coordinate eye, head, neck movements & maintains balance

20

Function of Spinocerebellum

-coordinate trunk & proximal limb movements

21

Function of Cerebrocerebellum

-coordinate fine motor planning of limbs
-anticipates sensory consequences of movements
-cognitive memory of motor functions

(right controls right, left controls left)

22

Clinical Signs of Cerebellar Dysfunction

-unstable gait & stance with a tendency to fall, broad based gait "sailor's gait", reeling & drunken
-jerky/unsmooth movements, intentional tremor
-ataxia (dis-coordination): trunk or extremities
-dysmetria of movement: goal-directed movement can over or undershoot target
-eye-movement disorders: nystagmus, saccadic & smooth pursuit dysmetria
-speech disorders: ataxia dysarthria w/scanning speech, difficulty to maintain speech rhythm, intonation & correct articulation

23

Superior Colliculus

-functions in the control of reflex movements that orient the eyes, head, & neck in response to visual, auditory, & somatic stimuli

24

Periaqueductal Gray Matter

-functions in the processing of autonomic & limbic activities & modulation of nociception

25

Aqueduct

-passageway connecting 3rd & 4th ventricles

26

Nucleus of Edinger-Westphal

-parashymathetic innervation of the eye to constrict the iris & to the ciliary muscle to alter lens shape for accommodation

27

Cranial Nerve III nuclei & nerve

-motor control of eye muscles

28

Spinothalamic tract

-fiber pathway to thalamus for pain/temperature from periphery

29

Medial Lemniscus

-sensory pathway for proprioception connecting the nucleus gracilis & cuneatus with the thalamus

30

Medial Geniculate

-thalamic relay nuclei for auditory information

31

Lateral Geniculate

-thalamic relay nuclei for visual information

32

Cerebral Peduncle

-fiber bundles of the corticospinal tract connecting the cerebral cortex to the brainstem

33

Optic Tract

-optic fibers from optic chiasm to the lateral geniculate

34

Substantia Nigra

-one of several nuclei involved in smooth motor control; degenerates in parkinson's disease

35

Red Nucleus

-relay nuclei b/w the cerebellum to the thalamus

36

Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus

-fiber pathway b/w the vestibular nuclei and the CN nuclei III, IV, VI to coordinate head/eye movements

37

Superior Cerebellar Peduncle

-fiber pathway to & from the cerebellum

38

Middle Cerebellar Peduncle

-fiber pathway to & from the cerebellum

39

Mesencephalic, Main sensory Nucleus, Motor Nucleus of CN V

-3 nuclear components of the trigeminal nerve nuclei

40

Cranial Nerve V

-motor & sensory fibers of CN V

41

Pontine Nuclei

-collection of neurons in the pons that receive input from the neocortex & send crossing fibers through the middle cerebellar peduncle

42

Locus Coeruleus

-a noradrenergic brainstem nucleus involved in mood, sleep/wake cycle

43

Raphe Nucleus Pontis

-one of several serotonin type nuclei involved in mood, sleep/wake cycle

44

Corticospinal Tract

-motor fibers from neocortex to spinal interneurons & lower motor neurons

45

Inferior & Medial Vestibular Nuclei

-nuclei of the vestibular system that regulate balance

46

Nucleus & Tractus Solitarius

-sensory nucleus for taste (CN VII), glands, chemo/baroreceptors (CN IX, X)

47

Dorsal Motor Nucleus Vagus (CN X)

-parasympathetic motor nucleus to lungs & gut

48

Spinal Nucleus & Tract of CN V

-nuclear & tract components of CN V that extends down into the upper cervical spinal cord

49

Inferior Olivary Nucleus

-origin of the climbing fibers the the cerebellar purkinje cells

50

Pyramid

-name given to the corticospinal tract fibers in medula

51

Reticular Formation

-network of neurons & axons that reside in the brain stem tegmentum involved in arousal, respiration, heart rate control

52

Nucleus CN IX

-glossopharyngeal nucleus with motor control over tongue & pharyngeal muscles with taste from

53

Lesions in brainstem will cause?

-contralateral signs & symptoms

54

Lesions in the brainstem nuclei/fascicle will cause?

-ipsilateral signs & symptoms

55

Structures Involved with:
-Ipsilateral 3rd nerve paresis
-Contral, hemiparesis

-Midbrain (base)
-CN III fascicles
-Cerebral Peduncle

56

Structures Involved with:
-Ipsilateral 3rd nerve paresis
-Contral. tremor
-Contral. ataxia

-Midbrain (tegmentum)
-CN III fascicles
-Red nucleus
-Superior cerebellar peduncle

57

Structures Involved with:
-Ipsilateral 3rd nere paresis
-contral. hemiparesis
-Contral. tremor
-Contral. ataxia

-Midbrain (base & tegmentum)
-CN III fascicles
-Red nucleus
-Superior cerebellar peduncle
-Substantia nigra

58

Midbrain Stroke Syndromes

-ipsilateral CN III palsy & loss of pupillary constriction due to damage of the oculomotor neclear complex including the parasympathetic Edinger-Westphal nucleus

59

Structures Involved with:
-contral. hemiparesis
-ipsilateral LMN
-facial paresis

-Medial Pons (base & tegmentum)
-corticospinal & corticobulbar tracts
-CN VII fascicles

60

Structures Involved with:
-contral. hemiparesis
-ipsilateral LMN
-facial paresis
-ipsilateral gaze
-paresis

-Medial Pons (base & tegmentum)
-corticospinal & corticobulbar tracts
-CN VII fascicles
-PPRF and/or CN VI

61

Structures Involved with:
-contral. arm/leg weakness
-contral. decrease position/vibration
-ipsilateral tongue weakness

-Medial Medulla
-corticospinal tract
-medial lemniscus
-CN XII

62

Structures Involved with:
-ipsilateral ataxia, vertigo nausea
-ipsilateral decrease face pain sensation
-contral. decrease body pain sensation
-ipsilateral Horner's Dysphagia

-Lateral Medulla
-Vest. nuclei
-inc. cerebellar peduncle
-CN V & tract
-spinothalamic tract
-sympathetic fibers
-nucleus ambiguus
-nucleus solitarius