Flashcards in Ch. 1: Cells: Structures & Functions Deck (26):
5 properties of living cells?
What are the components of the plasma membrane?
Functions of plasma membrane?
1) physical integrity of cell (prevent cell contents from leaking)
2) regulate influx & efflux of nutrients & chemicals
3) cell-cell recognition
What coordinates functions of plasma membrane & cell processes (attachment, movement, growth, differentiation)?
2 components of cytoskeleton? Specific types of each?
Microtubules: spindle fibers, centrioles
Functions of cytoskeleton?
Transport of molecules
Functions of flagellum & cilia?
1) motility of cell
2) intracellular communication & signaling
Functions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)? (Smooth & rough)
Protein modification: quality control of protein folding
Lipid synthesis, quality control of lipid formation
Diseases associated w/ER?
Parkinson's: dopamine not produced ➡️ cell system compromised
Alzheimer's: quality control system dysfunctional
Function of Golgi apparatus?
Packaging of proteins for transport from cell
Protein modification, glycoprotein, lipid
Function of lysosomes?
Digests cellular components & pathogens (via hydrolytic enzymes ➡️ fxn at acidic, optimal pH)
Functions of peroxisomes?
1) Contain detoxifying enzymes: catalase, urate oxidase, D-a.a. oxidase)
2) LCFA degradation
Diseases associated with peroxisomes?
Adrenoleukodystrophy: breakdown LCFAs of myelin sheath
Zellweger's syndrome: formation of peroxisomes affected
System used for intracellular proteolysis? Drug which inhibits it?
Function of mitochondria?
Supply energy (ATP) for cellular metabolic activities
Processes mitochondria involved in?
Imitation of apoptosis
Two processes mitochondria engage in to function? Protein involved?
What disorders associated with?
Fission: involves dynamic-related protein (DRP1)
What type of DNA do mitochondria have? Type of inheritance?
Components of nucleus?
Chromosomes in double membrane w/nuclear pores
Function of nucleus?
Control cell development & chemical activities
Function of nucleolus?
Ribosomal RNA synthesis
Nucleus: mRNA processing, 3 steps?
1) Capping: G cap
2) Splicing: Remove introns
3) Poly-A tail at 3' end: lengthen lifespan of mRNA
Function of telomeres?
Enzyme which extends them?
Provide protection to stabilize DNA during replication
Disease associated with telomeres?
Function of intracytoplasmic lipid droplets? Organized by what protein?
Sites of triacylglycerol & cholesterol esters