Ch. 1: Cells: Structures & Functions Flashcards Preview

Medical Biochemistry > Ch. 1: Cells: Structures & Functions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 1: Cells: Structures & Functions Deck (26):
1

5 properties of living cells?

Metabolism
Growth
Mutation
Reproduction
Response
(MGMRR)

2

What are the components of the plasma membrane?

Lipid bilayer
Phosphate
CHO
Protein

3

Functions of plasma membrane?

1) physical integrity of cell (prevent cell contents from leaking)
2) regulate influx & efflux of nutrients & chemicals
3) cell-cell recognition

4

What coordinates functions of plasma membrane & cell processes (attachment, movement, growth, differentiation)?

Integrins

5

2 components of cytoskeleton? Specific types of each?

Microfilaments: actin

Microtubules: spindle fibers, centrioles

6

Functions of cytoskeleton?

Structure
Motility
Cell division
Transport of molecules

7

Functions of flagellum & cilia?

1) motility of cell

2) intracellular communication & signaling

8

Functions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)? (Smooth & rough)

Protein modification: quality control of protein folding

Lipid synthesis, quality control of lipid formation

9

Diseases associated w/ER?

Parkinson's: dopamine not produced ➡️ cell system compromised

Alzheimer's: quality control system dysfunctional

10

Function of Golgi apparatus?

Packaging of proteins for transport from cell

Protein modification, glycoprotein, lipid

11

Function of lysosomes?

Digests cellular components & pathogens (via hydrolytic enzymes ➡️ fxn at acidic, optimal pH)

12

Functions of peroxisomes?

1) Contain detoxifying enzymes: catalase, urate oxidase, D-a.a. oxidase)

2) LCFA degradation

13

Diseases associated with peroxisomes?

Adrenoleukodystrophy: breakdown LCFAs of myelin sheath
Zellweger's syndrome: formation of peroxisomes affected
Refsum's disease

14

System used for intracellular proteolysis? Drug which inhibits it?

Ubiquitin-proteosome system

Bortezomib

15

Function of mitochondria?

Supply energy (ATP) for cellular metabolic activities

16

Processes mitochondria involved in?

Respiratory chain
TCA cycle
Oxidative phosphorylation
Beta-oxidation
Heme biosynthesis
Urea formation
Imitation of apoptosis

17

Two processes mitochondria engage in to function? Protein involved?

What disorders associated with?

Fission: involves dynamic-related protein (DRP1)
Fusion

microcephaly
metabolic abnormalities

18

What type of DNA do mitochondria have? Type of inheritance?

Associated diseases?

Circular DNA

Maternal inheritance

Mitochondriopathies

19

Components of nucleus?

Chromosomes in double membrane w/nuclear pores

20

Function of nucleus?

Control cell development & chemical activities

21

Function of nucleolus?

Ribosomal RNA synthesis

22

Nucleus: mRNA processing, 3 steps?

1) Capping: G cap
2) Splicing: Remove introns
3) Poly-A tail at 3' end: lengthen lifespan of mRNA

23

Function of telomeres?

Enzyme which extends them?

Provide protection to stabilize DNA during replication

telomerase

24

Disease associated with telomeres?

Dyskeratosis congenita

25

Function of intracytoplasmic lipid droplets? Organized by what protein?

Sites of triacylglycerol & cholesterol esters

Perilipins

26

Function of stem cells?

Self-renewal ➡️ develop into multiple types of cells, proliferate indefinitely