Ch 12 - Learning And Memory Flashcards Preview

Physiological psych > Ch 12 - Learning And Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 12 - Learning And Memory Deck (65):
1

Anterograde Amnesia

Unable to form new memories

2

Retrograde Amnesia

The inability to remember events prior to impairment

3

Are Anterograde and Retrograde amnesia permanent or temporary?

They can be permanent or temporary

4

What memory does amnesia usually affect?

Declarative memory (dates, events)

5

Consolidation

Brain forms permanent representation of memory

6

Retrieval

The process of accessing stores memory (the act of remembering)

7

What is required for consolidation and retrieval

Glutamate

8

What happens when glutamate receptors are blocked?

It prevents consolidation and retrieval

9

The average memory can only hold _____

7 numbers

10

What usually causes memory?

High emotional impact

11

Prefrontal area

Directs search strategy for retrieval in the hippocampus

12

All memories are stored in a single area?

False. All memories are not stored in a single area, they’re in different cortical areas according to where the information they are based on was processed

13

Declarative Memory

Involves learning the results in memories of facts, people, and events that a person can verbalize or declare

14

Episodic memory

Events

15

Semantic Memory

Facts

16

Autobiographical Memory

Information about oneself

17

Spatial memory

Location of individual and objects in space

18

Declarative memory and it’s subtypes require ________

Hippocampus

19

Non-Declarative Memory

Involves memories for behaviors

20

What does non-declarative memory involve?

It’s memories result from procedural or skills learning, emotional learning and stimulus-response conditioning

21

Working Memory

Provides a temporary “register” for information while it is being used

22

What is an assessment used for working memory?

Delayed match-to sample tests

23

What does the Pre-frontal cortex do?

Integrates long term memory with other information, manages strategies and decision making, directs working memory traffic in the brain, and coordinated sensory and motor systems

24

How are synapses strengthened?

If an axon of presynaptic neuron is active while the postsynaptic neuron is firing

25

Long-term potentiation (LTP)

Synapse becomes stronger over time

26

Long-term Depression (LTD)

A decree in the strength of synapses that occurs when stimulation of presynaptic neurons is insufficient to activate the postsynaptic neurons

27

The brain can form new synapses and neurons?

True

28

What occurs during Structural Changes?

Increased number, enlargement and growth of dendritic spines along with the transportation of additional AMPA receptors into the spines

29

Dendritic spines receive what?

Information

30

LTP- initiates what?

Growth of hippocampus

31

When does consolidation occur?

During sleep

32

Neurons in the hippocampus and cortical areas repeat what?

Firing patterns that occurred during awake learning

33

Sleep activated genes play roles in what?

Protein synthesis, synaptic modification and memory consolidation

34

Extinction does what?

Eliminates useless memories through new learning

35

What does extinction require?

Activation of NMDA receptors

36

Forgetting

Is an active, adaptive, biological process

37

What encourages memory loss

Enzyme PP1 and Rac protein

38

Forgetting may prevent what?

The saturation of synapses

39

Re-consolidation happens when?

During Memory retrieval

40

Rec-consolidation gives your brain the opportunity to do what?

Refined memories, correct errors (PTSD) and to create memories that did not occur

41

What are “false” memories?

Memories that did not actually occur

42

Why did researchers long believe that dementia in elderly was inevitable?

Due to them having substantially less neurons

43

What usually reflects motivation on memory loss

Deficits

44

Reserve hypothesis

Having an active lifestyle throughout life promotes neurogenesis

45

What does the Reserve Hypothesis neurons do once elderly

Prevent cognitive declines

46

Alzheimer’s

A progressive brain deterioration of deceleration memory loss

47

What problems do people with Alzheimer’s have?

Language, visuospatial functions, reason and aggression

48

What percent of people over 65 does Alzheimer’s affect?

10%

49

What percent of individuals over 85 does Alzheimer’s affect?

50%

50

Alzheimer’s is progressive

True

51

How does Alzheimer’s effect the brain

It shrinks it by eating cortical tissue and cerebral spinal fluid

52

What memory goes first when an individual has Alzheimer’s ?

Declarative memory

53

What areas in particular lose the most neurons when an individual has Alzheimer’s ?

The temporal and frontal lobes

54

There is an enlargement of ventricles when an individual has Alzheimer’s

True

55

Environmental factors correlating to Alzheimer’s

Lead exposure in childhood, pesticides, and chronic stress

56

Treatments for Alzheimer’s do what

Slow down the decline of the brain but cannot reverse its effects

57

What drugs help improve Alzheimer’s?

Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantive

58

When are the drug treatments for Alzheimer’s most effective?

In the beginning

59

What scans are used to detect Alzheimer’s?

PET and MRI scans

60

Atrophy happen in what areas of the brain when an individual has Alzheimer’s?

Temporal and parietal areas

61

What biomarks on the brain help detect Alzheimer’s?

Plaques

62

25% of individuals with plaques contract Alzheimer’s within how many years?

3

63

What does Kosakoff’s syndrome reduce?

Thiamine (vitamin B1)

64

Koraakoff’s causes what cognitive effects?

Anterograde Amnesia

65

Confabulation due to confusion between reality and memory is a sign of

Damage to the frontal lobes along with declarative memory impairment