Flashcards in Ch 12 - Learning And Memory Deck (65):
Unable to form new memories
The inability to remember events prior to impairment
Are Anterograde and Retrograde amnesia permanent or temporary?
They can be permanent or temporary
What memory does amnesia usually affect?
Declarative memory (dates, events)
Brain forms permanent representation of memory
The process of accessing stores memory (the act of remembering)
What is required for consolidation and retrieval
What happens when glutamate receptors are blocked?
It prevents consolidation and retrieval
The average memory can only hold _____
What usually causes memory?
High emotional impact
Directs search strategy for retrieval in the hippocampus
All memories are stored in a single area?
False. All memories are not stored in a single area, they’re in different cortical areas according to where the information they are based on was processed
Involves learning the results in memories of facts, people, and events that a person can verbalize or declare
Information about oneself
Location of individual and objects in space
Declarative memory and it’s subtypes require ________
Involves memories for behaviors
What does non-declarative memory involve?
It’s memories result from procedural or skills learning, emotional learning and stimulus-response conditioning
Provides a temporary “register” for information while it is being used
What is an assessment used for working memory?
Delayed match-to sample tests
What does the Pre-frontal cortex do?
Integrates long term memory with other information, manages strategies and decision making, directs working memory traffic in the brain, and coordinated sensory and motor systems
How are synapses strengthened?
If an axon of presynaptic neuron is active while the postsynaptic neuron is firing
Long-term potentiation (LTP)
Synapse becomes stronger over time
Long-term Depression (LTD)
A decree in the strength of synapses that occurs when stimulation of presynaptic neurons is insufficient to activate the postsynaptic neurons
The brain can form new synapses and neurons?
What occurs during Structural Changes?
Increased number, enlargement and growth of dendritic spines along with the transportation of additional AMPA receptors into the spines
Dendritic spines receive what?
LTP- initiates what?
Growth of hippocampus
When does consolidation occur?
Neurons in the hippocampus and cortical areas repeat what?
Firing patterns that occurred during awake learning
Sleep activated genes play roles in what?
Protein synthesis, synaptic modification and memory consolidation
Extinction does what?
Eliminates useless memories through new learning
What does extinction require?
Activation of NMDA receptors
Is an active, adaptive, biological process
What encourages memory loss
Enzyme PP1 and Rac protein
Forgetting may prevent what?
The saturation of synapses
Re-consolidation happens when?
During Memory retrieval
Rec-consolidation gives your brain the opportunity to do what?
Refined memories, correct errors (PTSD) and to create memories that did not occur
What are “false” memories?
Memories that did not actually occur
Why did researchers long believe that dementia in elderly was inevitable?
Due to them having substantially less neurons
What usually reflects motivation on memory loss
Having an active lifestyle throughout life promotes neurogenesis
What does the Reserve Hypothesis neurons do once elderly
Prevent cognitive declines
A progressive brain deterioration of deceleration memory loss
What problems do people with Alzheimer’s have?
Language, visuospatial functions, reason and aggression
What percent of people over 65 does Alzheimer’s affect?
What percent of individuals over 85 does Alzheimer’s affect?
Alzheimer’s is progressive
How does Alzheimer’s effect the brain
It shrinks it by eating cortical tissue and cerebral spinal fluid
What memory goes first when an individual has Alzheimer’s ?
What areas in particular lose the most neurons when an individual has Alzheimer’s ?
The temporal and frontal lobes
There is an enlargement of ventricles when an individual has Alzheimer’s
Environmental factors correlating to Alzheimer’s
Lead exposure in childhood, pesticides, and chronic stress
Treatments for Alzheimer’s do what
Slow down the decline of the brain but cannot reverse its effects
What drugs help improve Alzheimer’s?
Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantive
When are the drug treatments for Alzheimer’s most effective?
In the beginning
What scans are used to detect Alzheimer’s?
PET and MRI scans
Atrophy happen in what areas of the brain when an individual has Alzheimer’s?
Temporal and parietal areas
What biomarks on the brain help detect Alzheimer’s?
25% of individuals with plaques contract Alzheimer’s within how many years?
What does Kosakoff’s syndrome reduce?
Thiamine (vitamin B1)
Koraakoff’s causes what cognitive effects?