Ch 13 - Intelligence And Cognitive Functioning Flashcards Preview

Physiological psych > Ch 13 - Intelligence And Cognitive Functioning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 13 - Intelligence And Cognitive Functioning Deck (44):
1

Gray and white matter correlate to what

An individuals IQ

2

Gray matter volume is located where?

Particularly in the frontal areas

3

Brain organization

Thicker cortex and smaller columns

4

IQ scores correlate with what?

Processing efficiencies

5

Higher IQ scores means that a person must have what?

Higher myelination, a faster transfer to long term storage and less energy usage during a task

6

Linguistic tasks take place where?

Left frontal and temporal lobes

7

Logical and mathematical abilities take place where?

Left prefrontal cortex for tote calculation and parietal cortex during active calculation

8

Spatial abilities take place where?

The right parietal structures

9

Exposure to chemicals causes what?

Problems in intellectual function

10

After what age does perceptual speed drop?

After 25

11

At what age does numeric memory drop?

At 60

12

Default mode network is responsible for what?

Preparedness for action which decreased with age

13

At what age do limitations in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior originate?

Before the age of 18

14

The criteria for intellectual disability are an IQ below what?

Below 70 and difficulty meeting routine needs (self care)

15

What is the reasoning for most disability cases?

Genetic and environmental causes

16

What are examples of causes for a mental disability?

Disease during infancy or prenatal exposure to viruses and maternal alcoholism

17

Intellectual Disability (ID)

A limitation in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving etc)

18

Down syndrome (extra 2- chromosome)

The leading genetic cause of intellectual disability

19

When an individual has Down syndrome their glia secrets _________

Two proteins less that support neuron survival

20

What would be an effective treatment in women with DS?

Increasing proteins

21

Fragile X Syndrome

Mutated fMRI gene, role in pruning excess synapses

22

Fragile X Syndrome is more likely in males

True

23

PKU

Lacks enzyme that breaks down phenylalanine (amino acid)

24

What prevents intellectual impairment

Avoidance of high phenylalanine foods

25

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Social deficits, communication difficulties and repetitive behaviors

26

Individuals with ASD struggle due to what?

Having impaired communication, imagination and socialization

27

ASD is higher in women

False

28

Lack of Theory of Mind in ASD individuals

Infer another’s thoughts bad on experience

29

Lack of Empathy in ASD individuals

Occurs due to deficient mirror neurons

30

ASD have problems doing what?

Looking at faces and tracking objects

31

Fluid intelligence goes down after what age?

30

32

Crystallized intelligence is continuously going up?

True

33

Individuals with ASD have abnormal levels of what?

Serotonin, glutamate, GABA and oxytocin

34

Siblings of ASD children are how many times more likely to develop the disorder?

25x

35

Absence of genes in frontal and temporal cortices of ASD individuals indicate what?

A possible epigenetic influence

36

ASD is twice as common in boys

True

37

Savant

A person who has one or more remarkable skills while overall functioning is below normal

38

ADHD is characterized by?

Impulsiveness, inability to sustain attention, learning difficulty and hyperactivity

39

What intellectual disability is over diagnosed?

ADHD

40

Reducing the dopamine pathway does what?

Impairs reward response

41

Ritalin (stimulant)

Increase norepinephrine output to the prefrontal cortex

42

Can ADHD improve?

Yes

43

What percentage does heritability avg in ADHD individuals?

76%

44

Early ADJD drug treatment might prevent what?

Later substance abuse