Flashcards in Ch 13 - Intelligence And Cognitive Functioning Deck (44):
Gray and white matter correlate to what
An individuals IQ
Gray matter volume is located where?
Particularly in the frontal areas
Thicker cortex and smaller columns
IQ scores correlate with what?
Higher IQ scores means that a person must have what?
Higher myelination, a faster transfer to long term storage and less energy usage during a task
Linguistic tasks take place where?
Left frontal and temporal lobes
Logical and mathematical abilities take place where?
Left prefrontal cortex for tote calculation and parietal cortex during active calculation
Spatial abilities take place where?
The right parietal structures
Exposure to chemicals causes what?
Problems in intellectual function
After what age does perceptual speed drop?
At what age does numeric memory drop?
Default mode network is responsible for what?
Preparedness for action which decreased with age
At what age do limitations in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior originate?
Before the age of 18
The criteria for intellectual disability are an IQ below what?
Below 70 and difficulty meeting routine needs (self care)
What is the reasoning for most disability cases?
Genetic and environmental causes
What are examples of causes for a mental disability?
Disease during infancy or prenatal exposure to viruses and maternal alcoholism
Intellectual Disability (ID)
A limitation in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving etc)
Down syndrome (extra 2- chromosome)
The leading genetic cause of intellectual disability
When an individual has Down syndrome their glia secrets _________
Two proteins less that support neuron survival
What would be an effective treatment in women with DS?
Fragile X Syndrome
Mutated fMRI gene, role in pruning excess synapses
Fragile X Syndrome is more likely in males
Lacks enzyme that breaks down phenylalanine (amino acid)
What prevents intellectual impairment
Avoidance of high phenylalanine foods
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Social deficits, communication difficulties and repetitive behaviors
Individuals with ASD struggle due to what?
Having impaired communication, imagination and socialization
ASD is higher in women
Lack of Theory of Mind in ASD individuals
Infer another’s thoughts bad on experience
Lack of Empathy in ASD individuals
Occurs due to deficient mirror neurons
ASD have problems doing what?
Looking at faces and tracking objects
Fluid intelligence goes down after what age?
Crystallized intelligence is continuously going up?
Individuals with ASD have abnormal levels of what?
Serotonin, glutamate, GABA and oxytocin
Siblings of ASD children are how many times more likely to develop the disorder?
Absence of genes in frontal and temporal cortices of ASD individuals indicate what?
A possible epigenetic influence
ASD is twice as common in boys
A person who has one or more remarkable skills while overall functioning is below normal
ADHD is characterized by?
Impulsiveness, inability to sustain attention, learning difficulty and hyperactivity
What intellectual disability is over diagnosed?
Reducing the dopamine pathway does what?
Impairs reward response
Increase norepinephrine output to the prefrontal cortex
Can ADHD improve?
What percentage does heritability avg in ADHD individuals?