Ch.59 Ex:2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch.59 Ex:2 Deck (22):
1

The cephalic neural plate develops the ____, and the caudal end forms the ____ cord.

Forebrain
Spinal

2

The forebrain will continue to develop into the ____, the midbrain will become the ____, and the hindbrain will form the ____.

Prosencephalon
Mesencephalon
Rhombencephalon
think pms (P.M.R)

3

Failure of closure of the neural tube at the cranial end is called?

Anencephaly

4

Sonographic features of Anencephaly include:

Abscence of the brain and cranial vault
Rudimentary brain tissue (cerebrovasculosa)
"Froglike"appearance-bulging fetal orbits

5

Acrania features

Presence of brain tissue w/o thepresence of calvarium
Disorganization of brain tissue
Prominent sulcal markings

6

A neural tube defect in which the meninges alone or the meninges and the brain herniate through a defect in the calvarium is called?

Cephalocele

7

The term used to describe herniation of the meninges and brain through the defect is called?

Encephalocele
(think en-separated,they go together)

8

Cranial ____ describes the herniation of only meninges.

Meningocele

9

Fetuses with myelomeningoceles often present with the cranial defects associated with the ____ malformation, which is identified in 90% of patients.

Arnold-Chiari (Type II)

10

Spina Bifida Features

V or U configuration splaying of the post ossification centers
Protusion of a saclike structure (anechoic or echogenice)
Cleft in the Skin

11

DWM Features

Posterior fossa cyst
Enlarged Cisterna Magna
Splaying of the cerebellar hemispheres (agensis of cerebeller vermis)
Ventriculomegaly

12

____ holoprosencephaly is characterized by amonoventricle;brain tissue that is small and may have a cup,ball, or pancake configuration;fusion of the thalamus;and absence of the interhemispheric fissure,cavum septi pellucidi,corpus callosum,optic tracts, and olfactory bulbs.

Alobar

13

____ holoprosencephaly presents with a single ventricular cavity with partial formation of the occipital horns,partial or complete fusion of the thalamus,a rudimentary flex and interhemispheric fissure, and absent corpus callosum,cavium septi pellucidi, and olfactory bulbs.

Semi-lobar

14

Almost a complete division of the ventricles is seen with a corpus callosum that may be normal,hypoplastic,or absent,although the caveum septi pellucidi will still be absent in ____ holoprosencephaly.

Lobar

15

A fibrous tract that connects the cerebral hemispheres and aids in learning and memory is the ____ ____.

Corpus Callosum

16

____ ____ results from obstruction,atresia, or stenosis of the aqueduct of sylvius,causing ventriculomegaly.

Aqueductal Stenosis

17

Porencephaly or ____ cysts are cysts filled with cerebrospinal fluid.

Porencephalic

18

A rare disorder characterized by clefts in the cerebral cortex is called?

Schizencephaly

19

Enlargement of the ventricles occurs with ____of cerebrospinal fluid flow.

Obstruction

20

Fetal ventriculomegaly typically progresses from the ____ horns into the temporal and then to the ____ ventricular horns.

Occipital
Frontal

21

A ventricle is considered dilated when its diameter exceeds ____ mm.

10

22

Corpus Callosum sonographic features

Absence of the corpus callosum
Elevation & dilation of the 3rd ventricle
Widely sparated lateral ventricular frontal horns w/medial indentation of the medial walls
Dilated occipital horns (colopocephaly)
Teardrop shaped lateral ventricles
Abscence of the cavum septi pellucidi