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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (30):
1

Food insecurity

living with chronic hunger and poor nutrition, which threatens their ability to lead healthy and productive lives

2

Chronic Undernutrition or Hunger

People who cannot grow or buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs

3

Chronic Malnutrition

deficiencies of protein and other key nutrients

4

Famine

occurs when there is a severe shortage of food in an area and which can result in mass starvation, many deaths, economic chaos, and social disruption

5

Overnutrition

occurs when food energy intake exceeds
energy use and causes excess body fat

6

Irrigation

supplying water to crops by artificial means

7

Industrialized Agriculture or High-Input Agriculture

uses heavy equipment and large amounts of financial capital, fossil fuels, water, commercial inorganic fertilizers, and pesticides to produce single crops, or monocultures

8

Plantation Agriculture

a form of industrialized agriculture used primarily in tropical less-developed countries

9

Hydroponics

involves growing plants by exposing their roots to a nutrient-rich water solution instead of soil, usually inside of a greenhouse

10

Traditional Subsistence Agriculture

supplements energy from the sun with the labor of humans and draft animals to produce enough crops for a farm family’s
survival, with little left over to sell or store as a reserve for hard times.

11

Traditional Intensive Agriculture

farmers increase their inputs of human and draft-animal labor, animal manure for fertilizer, and water to obtain higher crop yields

12

Polyculture

grow several crops on the same plot simultaneously

13

Slash and Burn Agriculture

involves burning and clearing small plots in tropical forests, growing a variety of crops for a few years until the soil is depleted of nutrients, and then shifting to other plots to begin the process again

14

Green revolution

using high-input industrialized agriculture
to increase crop yields

15

Fishery

is a concentration of particular aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting in a given ocean area or inland body of water

16

Aquaculture

the practice of raising marine and freshwater fish in freshwater ponds or underwater cages in coastal or open ocean waters

17

Soil Erosion

is the movement of soil components,
especially surface litter and topsoil, from
one place to another by the actions of wind and water.

18

Desertification

occurs when the productive potential of topsoil falls by 10% or more because of a combination of prolonged drought and
human activities such as overgrazing and deforestation that reduce or degrade topsoil

19

Salinization

Repeated applications of irrigation water in dry climates lead to the gradual accumulation of salts in the upper soil layers

20

Waterlogging

in which water accumulates underground and gradually raises the water table, especially when farmers apply large amounts of irrigation water in an effort to leach salts deeper into the soil

21

Pest

any species that interferes with human welfare by competing with us for food, invading lawns and gardens, destroying building materials, spreading disease, invading ecosystems, or simply being a nuisance

22

Pesticides

chemicals used to kill or control populations of organisms that we consider undesirable

23

Integrated Pest Management

each crop and its pests are evaluated as parts of an ecological system. Then farmers
develop a carefully designed control program that uses a combination of cultivation, biological, and chemical tools and techniques, applied in a coordinated process tailored to each situation

24

Soil Conservation

involves using a variety of methods to reduce topsoil erosion and to restore soil
fertility, mostly by keeping the land covered with vegetation

25

Organic Fertilizer

from plant and animal materials

26

Manufactured Inorganic Fertilizer

produced from various minerals, which are mined from the earth’s crust

27

Animal Manure

the dung and urine of cattle, horses,
poultry, and other farm animals

28

Green Manure

consists of freshly cut or growing green vegetation that is plowed into the topsoil to increase the organic matter and humus available
to the next crop

29

Compost

produced when microorganisms in topsoil break down organic matter such as leaves, crop residues, food wastes, paper, and wood in the presence of oxygen

30

Food security

all or most of the people in the country have daily access to enough nutritious food to live active and healthy lives