Chapter 12 :The Industrial And Social Revolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 :The Industrial And Social Revolution Deck (37):

Reason : coal and iron

Machines were made from iron and steam was made by burning coal. Lots of coal and iron in Wales, Yorkshire and southern Scotland. Biggest mining industry.


Reason : the empire

By 1800, Britain controlled all or some of Canada, India, Australia and New Zealand. Britain could get raw materials (cotton or rubber) from these colonies. Britain had markets where they sold products made in British factories.


Reason : a good place to do business

Britain was a good place to do business as they had a good education system (Oxford and Cambridge), strong banking system (money for new businesses), stable government.


Reason : ready made workforce

Agricultural revolution => increase in food => increase in population => more people working in factories


Reason : great inventors and engineers

Isambard Kingdom Bruel : engineer, builder of bridges
James Watt : inventor of rotary steam engine
George Stephenson : pioneer of railways, inventor of locomotive 'Rocket'


Reason for why change in industry happened in Britain

Coal and iron
Good place to do business
Ready made workforce
Great inventors and engineers


Britain nickname

The workshop of the world


From village to town

1700 => 5 million
Most people lived in rural areas and farmed
1850 => 20 million
Changes in agriculture => industrial revolution


The agricultural revolution

More animals => more food => more people
Population explosion => 1750
Birth rates => up
Death rates down => down


How was agriculture improved?

New machinery
Improvements in livestock
The four field system



Open farming was when there were no hedges or fences to separate farmers land. Disease spread from animal to animal and animals ate crops.
Enclosure acts allowed farmers to fence off land


New machinery

All work on farms was done by hand. Jethro Tull seed drill => seeds were sown deep into ground and birds could not eat them
Cyrus McCormick mechanical reaper => made it easier for farmer to harvest crop
This led to increase in food


Improvements in livestock

Robert Bakewell made selective breeding. The strongest animals breeded and the weaker ones were slaughtered. There was more food so it was cheaper.


The four field system

One out of four field was left to fallow and rest. Viscount Charles Townshend planted turnips and clover which made the soil more fertile He rotated barley, wheat, turnips and clover every year.


Results of agricultural revolution

More food -> cheap food -> population explosion -> ready made work force -> more jobs



Made from cotton and wool. Machines were invented to spin and weave and more factories were built. End of cottage industry


Inventor of flying shuttle

John Kay (weaving)
Ms. Kay wants us to fly as writers


Inventor of spinning Jenny

James Hargreaves (spinning)
James and Jenny work in the school


Inventor of water frame

Richard Arkwright (spinning)
Noah's ARK -> WATER


Inventor of the mule

Samuel Crompton (spinning)


Inventor of power loom

Edmund Cartwright (weaving)
Wear loom band on your right hand


Spread of Factories

More machines needed to be built for factories so more factories were needed


First steam engine

Thomas Newcomen but was dangerous.
New steam engine


James watt

Produced first efficient steam engine. Pumped underground water out of steam engines.
Powered machines in textile industry and drove engines of railway locomotives and steam ships.


Inventor of smelting iron with Coke

Abraham Darby
Coke (coal dust) produced stronger iron


Transport in Britain

Road were muddy and difficult to use in winter. Factory owners wanted more money and wanted it to be easier and faster to transport their goods to other places.


Inventor of Bridgewater Canal between Liverpool and Manchester

James Brindley
Binded Liverpool and Manchester


Inventor of stoney road

John MacAdam
Tar macadam
Road could be used in winter


Inventor of rocky and stoney road

Thomas Teleford
Layers of rock and stones
Improved quality


Inventor of the rocket

George Stephenson
First steam train
Fast mode of transport


Private roads

Turnpike trusts


Isambard Kingdom Brunels ship

Was so big it took a year to figure how to launch it into the sea


Turnpike trusts

Private roads you had to pay for


Inventor of the Davy lamp

Humphrey davy


Inventor of Bessemer converter

Henry Bessemer
Turned iron into steel


Mine worker people in history

I work in a factory. I work 15 hours a day, 6 days a week. I do not get paid a lot, and some people who have accidents at work have no help to get a job again. Many children are used to unblock clogs in the textile machines. One of my friends suffered a lung disease caused by breathing in tiny pieces of material that floated around in the air, as we are not allowed to open any Windows. There is no education opportunities for me, so I have no chance of getting a good job when I'm older. My brothers work in a mine. My sister worked in a mine but she got black lung, a lung disease caused by breathing in coal dust, so she is sick. My little brother is a trapper, he opens and closes doors to let in fresh air for the miners and if there was a gas explosion, only the people behind that door would be affected. He sits there in the damp cold mine for 12 hours a day in the dark. My older brother is a drawer, he pulls carts of coal around the mines with a chain tied around his waist. He has to bring a canary down with him, because the harmful gases will kill the canary before they kill him. My family shares one room in a tenement building. We don't have much food and we don't wash often either. Lots of people in the building get smallpox and cholera. I am lucky that I don't live in a workhouse, where people get separated from their families and are forced to work for their food and shelter.


Robert Owen

From Wales. Owned a factory. Became a manager of a cotton mill. Became manager of the chorlton twist company. He wanted to change the living conditions in Manchester. He built houses which had clean water. Cheap good food was sold to the workers. He set up schools for children.