Chapter 13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (15):
1

Zone of Saturation

The spaces in soil and rock close to the earth’s surface, below a certain depth, these spaces are completely
filled with water

2

Water Table

falls in dry weather, or when we remove groundwater faster than nature can replenish
it, and it rises in wet weather

3

Aquifers

underground caverns and porous layers of sand, gravel, or rock through which groundwater flows

4

Surface water

the freshwater from precipitation and melted
snow that flows across the earth’s land surface and into lakes, wetlands, streams, rivers, estuaries, and ultimately into the oceans

5

Surface runoff

Precipitation that does not infiltrate the ground or return to the atmosphere by evaporation

6

Watershed or drainage basin

The land from which surface water drains into a particular river, lake, wetland, or other body of water

7

Reliable runoff

According to water scientists (hydrologists), two-thirds of the annual surface runoff into rivers and streams is lost in seasonal floods and is not available for human use. The remaining one-third is reliable runoff

8

Drought

a prolonged period in which precipitation is at least 70% lower than average and evaporation is higher than normal in a particular area

9

Water footprint

which is a rough measure of the volume of water that we use directly and indirectly to keep ourselves alive and to support our lifestyles

10

Virtual water

Water that is not directly consumed but is
used to produce food and other products

11

Desalinization

involves removing dissolved salts from
ocean water or from brackish (slightly salty) water in aquifers or lakes

12

Dam

is a structure built across a river to control the river’s flow

13

Reservoir

dammed water creates an artificial
lake

14

Floodplain

A flood happens when water in a stream overflows its normal channel and spills into an adjacent area

15

Groundwater

one of our most important sources of freshwater and a key component of the earth’s natural capital