Chapter 13-Emotional And Social Development In Middle Childhood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13-Emotional And Social Development In Middle Childhood Deck (80):

Describe the positive resolution of the industry versus inferiority stage

Resolved positively when experiences lead children to develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks


Explain how the beginning of formal schooling puts some children at risk for developing a sense of inferiority during middle childhood

The danger at this stage is inferiority, reflected in the pessimism of children who have little confidence in their ability to do things well. This sense of inadequacy can develop when family life has not prepared children for school life or when's teachers and peers destroy children's feelings of competence and mastery with negative responses


List three ways in which self-concept changes during middle childhood

Children refine their self-concept, organizing their observations of behaviors and internal states into general dispositions

Instead of specific behaviors, children emphasize competencies and also describe their personality, mentioning both positive and negative traits

The evaluative self descriptions result from school age children's frequent social comparisons


Judgments of their appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others

Social comparisons

For example, Joey observed that he was better at spelling than his peers but not so good at social studies. Older children can compare multiple individuals, including themselves instead of just comparing their own performance to that of a single peer


Describe changes in the structure of the self during middle childhood

Cognitive development affects the changing structure of the self. School-age children can better coordinate several aspects of a situation in reasoning about their physical world. In the social world, they combine typical experiences and behaviors into stable psychological dispositions, blend positive and negative characteristics, and compare their own characteristics with those of many peers


Provide an example of how perspective-taking skills affect the development of self concept

Perspective taking skills include an improved ability to and for what other people are thinking. They are crucial for developing a self concept based on personality traits. School-age children become better at reading other's messages and internalizing their expectations and as they do so, a form an ideal self that they use to evaluate their real self


Explain the importance of parental support for self development in middle childhood

School-age children with a history of elaborative parent-child conversations about past experiences construct a rich, positive narrative about the self and thus have more complex, favorable, and coherent self concepts


True or false: children in collectivist society's often define themselves according to group membership, while western children usually focus on personal attributes



List four self-evaluations that children form by the age of six or seven

Academic competence, social competence, physical/athletic competence, and physical appearance


True or false: once children's self-esteem takes on a hierarchical structure, separate self-evaluations contribute equally to general self-esteem



During childhood and adolescence, perceived academic competence/physical appearance correlates more strongly with overall self-worth than does any other self-esteem factor

Physical appearance


Self-esteem rises/drops during the early elementary school years. Explain why

Drops as children evaluate themselves in various areas. This decline occurs as children receive more competence-related feedback, as their performances are increasingly judged in relation to those of others, and as they become cognitively capable of social comparison


Provide an example of an ethnic difference and a sex difference in children's self-esteem

Ethnic: and especially strong emphasis on social comparison in school may explain why Chinese and Japanese children, despite their higher academic achievement, score lower than US children in self-esteem-a difference that widens with age. In Asian classrooms, competition is tough, and achievement pressure is high and at the same time, because their culture values modesty and social harmony, Asian children rely less on social comparisons to promote their own self-esteem. Rather, they tend to be reserved about judging them selves positively but generous in their praise of others

Sex: the more 5 to 8-year-old girls talked with friends about the way people look, watched TV shows focusing on physical appearance, and perceive their friends is valuing fitness, the greater the dissatisfaction with their physical self and the lower their overall self-esteem a year later
By the end of middle childhood, girls feel less confident than boys about their physical appearance and athletic abilities. With respect to academic self-esteem, boys are somewhat advantage: where is girl score higher in language arts self-esteem, boys have higher math and science self-esteem


Differentiate child-rearing practices associated with high versus low self-esteem in middle childhood

High self-esteem: children whose parents use an authoritative child-rearing style feel especially good about themselves. Warm, positive parenting let's children know that they are accepted as competent and worthwhile and firm but appropriate expectations, backed up with explanations, help them evaluate their own behavior against reasonable standards

Low self-esteem: controlling parents, those who too often help or make decisions for their child, communicate a sense of inadequacy two children. Having parents were repeatedly disapproving and insulting is also linked to low self-esteem. Children subjected to such parenting need constant reassurance, and many rely heavily on peers to affirm their self worth. Indulgent parenting is correlated with unrealistically high self-esteem, which also undermines development as these children tend to lash out at challenges to their overblown self images and are also likely to be hostile and aggressive


What is the best way to foster a positive, secure self image in school-age children?

To encourage children to strive for worthwhile goals. Over time, a bidirectional relationship emerges: achievement foster self-esteem, which contributes to further effort and gains in performance


Our common, every day explanations for the causes of behavior



Children who are high in academic self-esteem and motivation make _______-_________ attributions, in which successes are credited to ability. In contrast, children who hold a fixed view of ability develop _______ ________ and attribute their failures to lack of ability

Mastery-oriented attributions; learned helplessness


Briefly explain how children's attributions affect their goals

Children who make mastery-oriented attributions have an incremental view of ability, that it can increase because they attribute failure to factors that can be changed and controlled, such as insufficient effort or a difficult task
Children who developed learned helplessness hold a fixed view of ability, that it cannot be improved by trying hard and went to task is difficult, these children experience an anxious loss of control and they give up without really trying

Mastery-oriented children focus on learning goals, seeking information on how best to increase their ability through effort and their performance increases over time

Learned helplessness children focus on performance goals, obtaining positive and avoiding negative evaluations of their fragile sensibility. Over time, their ability no longer predicts how well they do


Summarize how communication from parents and teachers influences children's attributional style

Parents: when parents hold a fixed view of ability, their perceptions of children's academic competence tend to act as a self-fulfilling prophecy. Their children's self evaluations and school grades conform more closely to parental ability judgments than do those of children whose parents deny that ability is fixed. Parents who believe that little can be done to improve ability may ignore information that is inconsistent with their perceptions, giving their child little opportunity to counteract a negative parental evaluation

Teachers: teachers who are caring and helpful and who emphasize learning over getting good grades tend to have mastery-oriented students. In contrast, students with unsupportive teachers regarded their performance as externally controlled by their teachers or by luck and this attitude predicted withdrawal from learning activities and declining achievement-outcomes that lead children to doubt their ability


True or false: girls and low-income ethnic minority children are especially vulnerable to learned helplessness



Provide an example of how cultural values affect the likelihood that children will develop learned helplessness

Asian parents and teachers are more likely than their American counterparts to hold an incremental view of ability. Because of the high value they place on effort and self-improvement, Asians attend more to failure then to success because failure indicates where corrective action is needed. Americans, in contrast, focus more on success because it enhances self-esteem.
US mothers offer more praise after success, whereas Chinese mothers more often point out the child's inadequate performance


An intervention that encourages learned-helpless children to believe they can overcome failure by exerting more effort. Briefly explain this technique

Attribution retraining. Children are given tasks difficult enough that they will experience some failure, followed by repeated feedback that helps and revise their attributions such as "you can do it if you try harder". After they succeed, children are given additional feedback-"you're really good at this" or "you really tried hard on that one" so that they attribute their success to both ability and effort, not chance.

Another approach is to encourage a low-Etheridge children to focus less on grades and more on mastering a task for its own sake


List four ways to foster a master-oriented approach to learning in middle childhood

Provision of tasks: select tasks that are meaningful, responsive to a diversity of student interests, and properly matched to current confidence so that the child is challenged but not overwhelmed

Parent and teacher encouragement: communicate warmth, confidence in the child's abilities, the value of achievement, and the importance of effort in success. Model hi effort in overcoming failure, communicate often with parents

Performance evaluations: make evaluations private and avoid publicizing success or failure through wall posters, stars, privileges to smart children, and prizes for best performance. Emphasize individual progress and self-improvement

School environment: offer small classes, which permit teachers to provide individualized support for mastery. Provide for cooperative learning and peer tutoring and avoid ability grouping, which makes evaluation of children's progress public.


Discussed changes in how children experience pride and guilt during middle childhood

As children integrate social expectations into their self concepts, pride and guilt become clearly governed by personal responsibility. School-age children experience pride in new accomplishment and guilt over a transgression even when no adult is present. Children no longer report guilt for any mishaps but only for intentional wrongdoing, such as ignoring responsibilities, cheating, or lying


Under what circumstances are pride and guilt beneficial?

Pride motivates children to take on further challenges, whereas guild prompts them to make amends and to strive for self-improvement


Intense feelings of _______ can lead to a sharp drop in self-esteem, withdrawal, depression, and anger



List three advances in school age children understanding of emotions

They are likely to explain emotion by referring to internal states, such as happy or sad thoughts, rather than to external events

Become more aware of circumstances likely to spark mixed emotions, each of which may be positive or negative and may differ in intensity

Increasingly report experiencing more than one emotion at a time which help them realize that people's expressions may not reflect their true feelings and also Foster's awareness of self conscious emotions

Can reconcile contradictory facial and situational cues in figuring out another's feelings


How do cognitive development and social experiences contribute to games in emotional understanding?

Adults sensitivity to children's feelings and willingness to discuss emotions- social experiences

Together, these factors contribute to a rise in empathy as well. As children move closer to adolescence, advances in perspective taking permit an empathic response not just people's immediate distress but also to their general life condition. Emotional understanding and empathy are linked to favorable social relationships and prosocial behavior


A general strategy for managing emotion in which children appraise the situation as changeable, identify the difficulty, and decide what to do about it

Problem-centered coping


A general strategy for managing emotion. If problem-solving does not work, children engage in this type of coping, which is internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about an outcome

Emotion-centered coping


When the development of emotional self-regulation has gone well, young people acquire a sense of emotional _____-______, A feeling of being in control of their emotional experience

Emotional self-efficacy


Distinguish characteristics of emotionally well-regulated children versus children with poor emotional regulation

Well-regulated: generally up beat in mood and also empathic and prosocial

Poorly regulated: overwhelmed by negative emotion, a response that interferes with empathy and prosocial behavior


Briefly explain the role of culture in the development of self-regulation

Example: researchers studied children into collectivist subcultures in rural Nepal. In response to stories about emotionally charged situations , Hindu children more often said they would feel angry but will try to mask their feelings. Buddhist children interpreted the situation so that they felt just OK, rather than angry. In-line with this difference, Hindu mothers reported that they often teach their children how to control their emotional behavior, whereas Buddhist mothers pointed to the value their religion places on a calm, peaceful disposition


The capacity to imagine what other people may be thinking and feeling

Perspective taking


The stage of Selman's perspective taking where children recognize that self and other can have different thoughts and feelings, but they frequently confuse the two



The stage of Selman's perspective taking where children understand that different perspectives may result because people have access to different information



The stage of Selman's perspective taking where children can step into another person's shoes and view their own thoughts, feelings, and behavior from the other person's perspective and they also recognize that others can do the same



The stage of Selman's perspective taking where children can step outside a two-person situation and imagine how the self and other are viewed from the point of view of an impartial third party



The stage of Selman's perspective taking where individuals understand that third-party perspective taking can be influenced by one or more systems of broader societal values



What are factors that contribute to individual differences in perspective-taking skill?

Good perspective takers are more likely to display empathy and sympathy and to handle difficult social situations effectively, reasons they are better liked by peers

Children with poor social skills have great difficulty imagining others' thoughts and feelings and they often mistreat adults and peers without feeling the guilt and remorse prompted by awareness of another's viewpoint


Provide an example illustrating cultural differences in children's appreciation of moral rules

Although both Chinese and Canadian schoolchildren consider lying about antisocial acts as very naughty, Chinese children who are influenced by collectivist values, more often rate lying favorably when the intention is modesty, as when a student to have thoughtfully picked up later from the playground said "I didn't do it". Chinese children are more likely to favor lying to support the group at the expense of the individual whereas Canadian children more often favor lying to support the individual at the expense of the group


School-age children develop a flexible/rigid approach to moral rules



How do children interpret the relationship between moral imperatives and social conventions?

They clarify and link moral imperative's and social conventions. For example, school-age children distinguish social conventions with a clear purpose from ones with no obvious justification such as not running in school hallways to prevent injuries versus crossing a forbidden line on the playground. They regard violations of purposeful conventions as closer to moral transgressions. They also realize that people's intentions and the context of their actions affect the moral implications of violating a social convention


How do you notions of personal choice enhance children's moral understandings?

As early as age 6, children view freedom of speech and religion as individual rights, even if laws exist that deny those rights and the regard laws that discriminate against individuals as wrong and worthy of violating. In justifying their responses, children appeal to personal privileges and to the importance of individual rights for maintaining a fair society


Provide an example showing how older school-age children place limits on individual choice

Fourth-graders faced with conflicting moral and personal concerns such as whether or not to befriend a classmate of a different race or gender, typically decide in favor of kindness and fairness. Partly for this reason, prejudice generally declines in middle childhood


True or false: children in western and non-western cultures use similar criteria to distinguish moral and social-conventional concerns. Explain your answer

True, for example, Chinese young people whose culture places a high value on respect for and deference to adult authority, nevertheless say that adults have no right to interfere in children's personal matters, such as how they spend free time. American and Korean children Alike claim that a child with no position of authority should be obeyed when she gives a directive that is fair and caring


Trace children's understanding of God from preschool through adolescence

Preschool and school-age children: children distinguish magical beings from reality and at the same time, they embrace other beliefs that are part of their culturally transmitted religion. To avoid confusion, they must isolate their concepts of God from their grasp of human agents, placing God in a separate religious realm governed by superhuman rules

Adolescents: the concrete image of God as a big person gives way to an abstract, mystical view of God as formless, all-knowing or omniscient, all-powerful or omnipotent, and transcending the limits of time


Explain how the research strategies used to study children's understanding of God influence their responses

Asking children to respond to open-ended questions are so cognitively demanding that children often fall back on their highly detailed notions of humans to fill in for their sketchier thoughts about God.
When researchers make tasks less demanding, children recognize that God has supernatural powers not available to humans


Children's understanding of God is/is not limited to an anthropomorphic, "big person" image

Is not


True or false: young school children often derive their racial attitudes from the media and from implicit messages in their environments rather than from parents and friends



True or false: many ethnic-minority children show a pattern of reverse favoritism, in which they assign positive characteristics to the privileged white majority and negative characteristics to their own group



List three personal and situational factors that influence the extent to which children hold racial and ethnic biases

A fixed view of personality traits: often judge others as either good or bad ignoring motives and circumstances

Overly high self-esteem: more likely to hold racial and ethnic prejudices and seem to be a little disadvantaged individuals or groups to justify their own extremely favorable self-evaluation

A social world in which people are sorted into groups: the more adults highlight Group distinctions for children and the less interracial contact children experience, the more likely white children are to display prejudice


Describe two ways to reduce prejudice in school-age children

Intergroup contact, in which racially and ethnically different children work toward a common goals and become personally acquainted

Long term contact and collaboration in neighborhoods, schools, and communities. Classrooms that expose children to broad ethnic diverse city, teach them to understand and value those differences, directly address the damage caused by prejudice, and encourage perspective taking and empathy both prevent children from forming negative biases and reduce already acquired biases

Inducing children to view others traits as changeable, by discussing with them the many possible influences on those traits


Describe the characteristics of peer groups

Collectives that generate unique values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers. Organized on the basis of proximity such as being in the same classroom and similarity in sex, ethnicity, academic achievement, popularity, and aggression


How does the creation of a "peer culture "lead to a sense of group identity?

Typically involves a specialized vocabulary, dress code, and place to hang out. As children develop these exclusive associations, the codes of dress and behavior that grow out of them become more broadly influential and those who deviate are often rebuffed, becoming targets of critical glasses and comments. These customs bind peers together, creating a sense of group identity. Within the group, children acquire many social skills such as cooperation, leadership, followership, and loyalty to collective goals


Explain how school-age children view peer exclusion, noting gender differences

Most few exclusion as wrong, even when they see themselves as different from the excluded child. And with age, children are less likely to endorse excluding someone because of unconventional appearance or behavior. Girls especially regarding exclusion as unjust, perhaps because the experience it more often than boys. But when IP or threatens group functioning by acting disruptively or by lacking skills to participate in valued group activity, both boys and girls say that exclusion is justified


Describe the social and emotional consequences of being excluded from a peer group

become increasingly peer avoidant and thus more isolated and opportunities to acquire socially competent behavior diminish. Cast-outs turn to other low status peers with poor social skills


Describe the nature of friendship during the school years

During the school years, friendship becomes more complex and psychologically-based. Friendship becomes a mutually agreed-on relationship in which children like each other's personal qualities and respond to one another's needs and desires. Once a friendship forms, trust becomes it's defining feature.


What is the defining feature of friendship in middle childhood

Trust becomes its defining feature

School-age children state that good friendship is based on ask of kindness, signifying that each person can be counted on to support the other. Older children regard violations of trust such as not helping when others need help, breaking promises, and gossiping as serious breaches of friendship


True or false: new ideas about the meaning of friendship lead school-age children to be less selective in their choice of friends than they were at younger ages

False, school-age children is friendships are more selective. They only have a handful of good friends


High-quality friendships do/do not tend to remain stable over middle childhood

Do you remained fairly stable, with about 50 to 70% enduring over a school year and some for several years


List characteristics of aggressive children's friendships

The relationship is often riddled with hostile interaction and is at risk for break up, especially when just one member is aggressive

Girls: girls' friendships are high and exchange of private feelings but also full of relational hostility, including jealousy, conflict, and betrayal

Boys: involve frequent expressions of anger, coercive statements, physical attacks, and enticements to rule breaking behavior, as well as relational aggression


Refers to likability, the extent to which a child is viewed by a group of agemates, such as classmates, as a worthy social partner. How is it different from friendship?

Pier acceptance. Unlike friendship, likability is not a mutual relationship by a one-sided perspective, involving the groups view of an individual


Explain how researchers commonly assess peer acceptance

Researchers usually you self-reports that measure social preferences, for example, asking children to identify classmates who they like very much or like a very little. Another approach assesses social prominence, children's judgments of whom most of their classmates admire


Name and briefly describe four categories of peer acceptance

Popular children: who get many positive votes or are well-liked

Rejected children: who get many negative votes or are disliked

Controversial children: who receive many votes, both positive and negative. Are both liked and disliked

Neglected children: who are seldom mentioned, either positively or negatively


True or false: all school-age children fit into one of the four categories of peer acceptance

False, about two thirds of students in a typical elementary school fit one of these categories and the remaining one third, who did not receive extreme scores, are average in peer acceptance


Identify and describe two subtypes of popular children

Popular-prosocial children: combine academic and social competence. They perform well in school, communicate with peers and friendly and cooperative ways, and solve social problems constructively

Popular-antisocial children: includes tough boys-athletically skilled but poor students who cause trouble and defy adult authority-and relationally aggressive boys and girls who enhance their own status by ignoring, excluding, and spreading rumors about other children


The largest subtype rejected children. They show high rates of conflict, physical and relational aggression, and hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive behavior. Usually deficient in perspective taking, and they tend to misinterpret the innocent behaviors of peers as hostile and to blame others for their social difficulties

Rejected-aggressive children


A subtype of rejected children who are passive and socially awkward. These timid children are overwhelmed by social anxiety, hold negative expectations for treatment by peers, and worry about being scorned and attacked. They typically feel like retaliating rather than compromising in conflicts with peers although they less often act on those feelings

Rejected-withdrawn children


What are four consequences of peer rejection?

Classroom participation declines, their feelings of loneliness rise, their academic achievement falters, and they want to avoid school


True or false: controversial children are hostile and disruptive but also engage in high rates of positive, prosocial acts



True or false: neglected children are often poorly adjusted and display less socially competent behavior than their peers. Explain your answer

False, neglected children are usually well-adjusted. Although they engage in low rates of interaction, most are just as socially skilled as average children. They do not report feeling unhappy about their social life, and when they want to, they can break away from their usual, preferred pattern of playing alone


List three interventions designed to help rejected children

Most interventions involve coaching, modeling, and reinforcing positive social skills

Intensive academic tutoring improves both school achievement and social acceptance
An intervention that focuses on training in perspective taking and social problem-solving
Interventions focusing on improving the quality of parent-child interaction


A destructive form of interaction in which certain children become targets of verbal and physical attacks or other forms of abuse

Peer victimization


True or false: 20 to 40% of middle school students report they have experienced cyber bullying, bullying through email or other electronic media



Describe typical characteristics of bullies

Some are high status youngsters who may be liked for their leadership or athletic abilities but most are disliked, or become so because of their cruelty.


Describe the characteristics of victimized children

Tends to be passive when active behavior is expected. On the playground, they hang around chatting or wander on their own. When bullied, they give in, cry, and assume defensive posture's. Biologically-based traits such as uninhibited temperament and a frail physical appearance, contribute to victimization


True or false: victims of peer victimization are rarely, if ever, aggressive. Explain your answer

False, 1/3 to 1/2 of victims are also aggressive, meeting out physical, relational, or cyber hostilities and occasionally, they retaliate against powerful bullies who respond by abusing them again


Discuss individual and environment-based interventions for peer victimization

Individual interventions: interventions that change victimized children's negative opinions of themselves and that teach them to respond in non-reinforcing ways to their attackers are helpful. Helping them to acquire the social skills needed to form and maintain a gratifying relationship whom they can turn for help

Environmental interventions: change their environments including school, sports programs, recreation centers, and neighborhoods. Promote pro social attitudes and behaviors. Effective approaches include developing school and community codes against both traditional and cyber bullying, teaching child bystanders to intervene, and listing parents assistance in changing Bowie's behaviors, and moving socially prominent bullies to another class or school


According to Ericsson, the combination of what two factors sets the stage for the psychological conflict of middle childhood, industry versus inferiority?

The combination of adult expectations and children's drive toward mastery