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Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Personality Deck (55)
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1

personality

an individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting

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sigmund freuds psychoanalytic theory

said that children sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality

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humanistic approach

focused on our inner capacities for growth and self fulfillment. focus on the healthy potential self growth

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trait theories

examine characteristic patterns of behaviour

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social cognitive theories

explore the interactions between peoples traits and their social context

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psychodynamic theories

view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences

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psychoanalysis

frauds theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

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unconscious

according to freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. according to contemporary psychologists, info processing of which we are unaware

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free association

in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says what ever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarassing

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id

a recevoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. the id operates on the pleasure principle demanding immediate gratification

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ego

the largely conscious "executive" part of personality that, according to freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. the ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain

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superego

around 4 or 5, a child is able to recognize it. the part of personality that, according to freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement (the conscience) and for future aspirations

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psychosexual stages

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to freud, the id's pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones (pleasure sensitive areas)

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Oral stage

0-18 months. pleasure centres on the mouth, sucking, biting, chewing.

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anal stage

18-36 months. pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control.

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phallic stage

3-6 years. pleasure zone in the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings. boys hate for father, attraction to mother

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latency

6-puberty. a phase of dormant sexual feelings.

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genital

puberty on. maturation of sexual interests

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oedipus complex

according to freud, a boys sexual desires towards his mother, and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the father. it was also believed that girls experienced a parallel electra complex

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identification

according to freud, the process by which children incorporate their parents values into their developing superegos

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fixation

according to freud, a lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

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defence mechanism

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

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repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defence mechanism that banishes from consciousness, anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories,

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manifest content

remembered content of dreams

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latent content

dreamers unconscious wishes

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what are the six defence mechanisms?

regression, reaction formation, projection, rationalization, displacement and denial

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regression

retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated (in certain circumstances doing something you would have done when you were younger)

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reaction formation

switching unacceptable impulses to their opposites (angry to excited)

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projection

disguising ones own threatening impulses by attributing them to others

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rationalization

offering self justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for ones actions