Flashcards in chapter 15 psychological disorders recall Deck (25):
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms; extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsive.
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors.
the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disordered, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, with an update “text revision”; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jump anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.
positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises.
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder.
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods or diminished interest or pleasure in most activities, along with at least four other symptoms.
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
a mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopeless and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder.)
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and behaviors.
a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions.
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders.
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personality disorder.
an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) maintain a starvation diet despite being significantly (15 percent or more) underweight.
an eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use), or by fasting
significant binge-eat episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging or fasting, that marks bulimia nervosa.
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.