Chapter 16 Endocrine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Endocrine Deck (26):
1

Aden/o

Gland

2

Adren/o, adrenal/o

Adrenal glands

3

Cortic/o

Cortex (the outer layer of a body organ)

4

Endocrin/o

Endocrine

5

Parathyroid/o

Parathyroid glands

6

Pituitar/o

Pituitary gland

7

Thyroid/o, thyr/o

Thyroid gland

8

Acr/o

Extremities, height

9

Calc/I

Calcium

10

Dips/o

Thirst

11

Kal/I

Potassium

12

Natr/o

Sodium

13

Cushing syndrome

Group of signs and symptoms attributed to the excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortices. This syndrome may be a result of a pituitary tumor or a primary adrenal gland dysfunction. Signs include abnormally pigmented skin, "moon face," pads of fat on the chest and abdomen, "buffalo hump" (fat on the upper back), wasting away of muscle, and hypertension.

14

diabetes insipidus (DI)

result of decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Symptoms include excessive thirst (polydipsia), large amounts of urine (polyuria), and sodium being excreted from the body.

15

diabetes mellitus (DM)

chronic disease involving a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by under-activity of the islets of Langerhans a characterized by elevated blood sugar (hyperglycemia). DM can cause chronic renal disease, retinopathy, and neuropathy. In extreme cases the patient may develop ketosis, acidosis, and finally coma.

16

gigantism

condition brought about by hypersecretion of growth hormone by the pituitary gland before puberty

17

goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland

18

Graves disease

a disorder of the thyroid gland characterized by the presence of hyperthyroidism, goiter, and abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs

19

myxedema

condition resulting from a deficiency of the thyroid hormone thyroxine; a severe form of hypothyroidism in an adult. Signs include puffiness of the face and hands, coarse and thickened skin, enlarged tongue, slow speech, and anemia

20

tetany

condition affecting nerves causing muscle spasms as a result of low amounts of calcium in the blood caused by a deficiency of the parathyroid hormone

21

fasting blood sugar (FBS)

a blood test performed after the patient has fasted for 8 to 10 hours to determine the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood at the time of the test. Elevation may indicate diabetes mellitus.

22

exophthalmos

abnormal protrusion of the eyeball

23

hormone

a chemical substance secreted by an endocrine gland that is carried in the blood to a target tissue

24

isthmus

narrow strip of tissue connecting two larger parts in the body, such as the isthmus that connects the two lobes of thyroid gland

25

metabolism

sum total of all the chemical processes that take place in a living organism

26

ADH

antidiuretic hormone