Flashcards in Chapter 16 Endocrine Deck (26):
Cortex (the outer layer of a body organ)
Group of signs and symptoms attributed to the excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortices. This syndrome may be a result of a pituitary tumor or a primary adrenal gland dysfunction. Signs include abnormally pigmented skin, "moon face," pads of fat on the chest and abdomen, "buffalo hump" (fat on the upper back), wasting away of muscle, and hypertension.
diabetes insipidus (DI)
result of decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Symptoms include excessive thirst (polydipsia), large amounts of urine (polyuria), and sodium being excreted from the body.
diabetes mellitus (DM)
chronic disease involving a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by under-activity of the islets of Langerhans a characterized by elevated blood sugar (hyperglycemia). DM can cause chronic renal disease, retinopathy, and neuropathy. In extreme cases the patient may develop ketosis, acidosis, and finally coma.
condition brought about by hypersecretion of growth hormone by the pituitary gland before puberty
enlargement of the thyroid gland
a disorder of the thyroid gland characterized by the presence of hyperthyroidism, goiter, and abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs
condition resulting from a deficiency of the thyroid hormone thyroxine; a severe form of hypothyroidism in an adult. Signs include puffiness of the face and hands, coarse and thickened skin, enlarged tongue, slow speech, and anemia
condition affecting nerves causing muscle spasms as a result of low amounts of calcium in the blood caused by a deficiency of the parathyroid hormone
fasting blood sugar (FBS)
a blood test performed after the patient has fasted for 8 to 10 hours to determine the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood at the time of the test. Elevation may indicate diabetes mellitus.
abnormal protrusion of the eyeball
a chemical substance secreted by an endocrine gland that is carried in the blood to a target tissue
narrow strip of tissue connecting two larger parts in the body, such as the isthmus that connects the two lobes of thyroid gland
sum total of all the chemical processes that take place in a living organism