Chapter 18 & Chapter 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 & Chapter 19 Deck (35):
1

Define Oxidation

The loss of electrons

2

Define Reduction

The gain of electrons

3

Oxidation is known as the __________ in oxidation state

Increase

4

Reduction is known as the __________ reduction state

Decrease

5

What is the oxidation state of S in KHSO4?

+6

6

What is the oxidation state of Carbon in CO3 2-

+4

7

What is the oxidation states of the following?
I) Cl2
II) Na+
III) KF
IV) CO2
V) FeSO4

I) O
II) +1
III) K: +1, F: -1
IV) C: +4, O: -2
V): Fe:+6, SO4: -2

8

What is the oxidation states of the following?
I) Ag
II) Fe3+
III) CH4
IV) Cr2O7 2-
V) ClO4-
VI) CaH2

I) 0
II) +3
III) C: -4, H: +1
IV) Cr: +6, O: -2
V) Cl: +7, O: -2
VI) Ca: -2 H: +1

9

Define Voltaic (Galvanic) Cell

Cell that PRODUCES electrical current from a SPONTANEOUS chemical reaction

10

Define Electrolytic Cell

Cell that CONSUMES electrical current to drive a NONSPONTANEOUS chemical reaction

11

Which type of cell has a system that does work on the surroundings?

Voltaic Cell

12

Which type of cell has the desired outcome of creating electricity?

Voltaic Cell

13

Which type of cell has a surrounding that does work on the system?

Electrolytic Cell

14

Which type of cell has the desired outcome of creating a chemical reaction?

Electrolytic Cell

15

What are the components that make up a Voltaic Cell?

2 half cells, 2 electrodes, 2 aqueous electrolyte solutions, a wire connecting the electrodes, and one salt bridge

16

What are the 2 ways of writing out a cell notation?

I) Anode | Electrolyte || Electrolyte | Cathode | Pt
II) Fe (s) | Fe2+ (aq) || MnO4- (aq), H+, Mn2+ (aq) | Pt

17

ΔGrxn < 0 = ???

(Q < K) Spontaneous, reaction moves to the right

18

ΔGrxn > 0 = ???

(Q > K) Nonspontaneous, reaction moves to the left

19

ΔGrxn = 0 ???

(Q = K) At equilibrium, reaction moves neither way

20

When solving for ΔGrxn using Hess's Law, when a chemical reaction is multiplied by a factor what happens to the ΔGrxn?

Also multiplied by the same factor

21

When solving for ΔGrxn using Hess's Law, when a chemical reaction is reversed what happens to the ΔGrxn?

It changes signs

22

What is the equation used when calculating Free Energy ΔGrxn of nonstandard amounts?

ΔGrxn = ΔG^o rxn + RTlnQ

23

What is the oxidation state of a free element?

0

24

What is the oxidation state of H?

+1

25

What is the oxidation state of O?

-2

26

Define Anode

Electrode where Oxidation occurs

27

Define Cathode

Electrode where Reduction occurs

28

T/F Electrons flow from Cathode to Anode

False; electrons flow from Anode to Cathode

29

What is the equation used to calculate Cell Potential?

E^o cell = E^o final (Cathode) - E^o initial (Anode)

30

What is the equation used to calculate ΔG^o from Cell Potential?

ΔG^o = -nF(E^o cell)

31

In the equation ΔG^o = -nF(E^o cell), what does F represent?

Faraday's constant (96485)

32

What is the equation used to calculate K from Cell Potential at standard conditions?

E^o cell = 0.0592V/n (logK)

33

What is the equation used to calculate Cell Potential of nonstandard concentrations at standard conditions?

E cell = E^o cell - 0.0592V/n (logQ)

34

If E^o cell > 0 it is...

Spontaneous (Voltaic Cell)

35

If E^o cell < 0 it is...

Nonspontaneous (Electrolytic Cell)