Chapter 19: Male and Female Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19: Male and Female Reproductive System Deck (16):
1

Genetic Male

Without Testosterone = female anatomy

2

Genetic Female

With Testosterone = male anatomy

3

Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome

Genetic males without testosterone receptors = female body

Lack ovaries and do not menstruate.

4

Testosterone during and after Puberty

Puberty range (8-14 years old): testosterone stimulates development of secondary sexual characteristics:
General growth of body and genitalia, ↑libido (sexual drive), ↑erythropoiesis, ↑frequency of erections and ejaculations

Stimulates spermatogenesis
Process of making sperm
Androgen binding protein (ABP) must be present

5

GnRH - Gonadotropic Releasing Hormone

Gonadotropic Releasing Hormone (hypothalamus) normally regulated by a negative feedback loop,

During puberty - hypothalamus less sensitive to high testosterone levels,

6

Sertoli Cells

(Sustentacular or nurse cells)
Secrete ABP (permissive to testosterone)

7

Leydig Cells (Interstitial cells)

Secrete testosterone

8

Inhibin decreases Sperm Count

Normal sperm count ranges between 20-140 million sperm per ml of ejaculate.

Inhibin - selectively inhibits FSH but not LH or testosterone, this mechanisms decreases [ABP] to regulate sperm count while maintaining other characteristics.

9

ACROSOME

Contains digestive enzymes that breakdown the ovum’s zona pellucida (glycoproteins)

Once it crosses, it must then deliver its nucleus into a ‘receptive’ secondary oocyte

10

Fertilization

requires two gametes (sperm and ovum) each has to be haploid (n)

11

Spermatogenesis

The formation of spermatozoa (takes ~64-74 days).

Testosterone stimulates Spermatogenesis (ABP must be present)

12

Mature Spermatozoon Characteristics

Head contains:
Very little cytoplasm and organelles
Genetic material (n=23 chromosomes),
Acrosome has lysosomes with digestive enzymes (Helps penetrate the ovum)

Midpiece (body): numerous mitochondria
Produce ATP for locomotion.

Tail:
Microtubules for locomotion,
Principal Piece: Largest part of tail.
End piece: Smallest part of tail

13

Female Puberty

Puberty onset 10 – 16 years of age
Estrogen (from ovary),

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from hypothalamus stimulates:
FSH and LH secretion from adenohypophysis,
FSH - stimulate oogenesis of a dominant oocyte,
LH - followed by ovulation and menstruation in each cycle

14

Oogenesis

Secondary oocyte development during puberty

15

Ovarian Cycle (in ovary)

Follicular phase (day 1 -13): Graafian Follicle Develops (with Secondary oocyte inside)
Ovulation (day 14): 2nd oocyte leaves ovary
Luteal phase (day 15 – 28): Follicle becomes corpus luteum and produces Progesterone and Estrogen

16

Menstrual Cycle (in uterus)

Menstruation (day 1 - 5): Shedding of endometrium
Proliferative phase (day 6- 13): 1st estrogen peak develops ‘new’ endometrium
Secretory phase (day 15 – 26): 2nd estrogen peak and PROGESTERONE increase thickness of endometrium (implantation)
Premenstrual phase day (27 – 28): ADH Oxytocin