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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (30):

Bias blind spot

Belief we are unlikely to fall prey to the cognitive biases others will
If we notice our view point is different from others we assume we are the objective one and they are bias


Confirmatory Hypothesis Testing

Selecting questions or forming experiment in a way that leads participates toward a particular answers that supports your hypothesis


Empirical Journal Articles

Report for the first time results of an empirical research study
Contains details about the study's method , statistical tests used, numerical results
Must be peer reviewed before being published


Review Journal Article

Provides a summary of all the studies done in 1 research field
Sometimes use meta-analysis
Must be peer reviewed before being published



Combining the results of many studies and give a number that summarizes the magnitude/ effect size of a relationship
Doesn't allow for bias



Concise summary of an article about 120 words long
Describes the study's hypothesis, methods, and major results



1st paragraph explains the topic
Middle paragraphs give theoretical and empirical background
The final paragraph gives specific research questions, goals hypotheses



Explains in detail hoe researcher conducts their study
Contains subsections



Describes the quantitative and qualitative results
Statistical tests used to analyze the data
Usually provides tables and figures to summarize key results



1st paragraph sums up research question and methods & how well data supported the hypotheses
Then talk about the contribution this study made
Scientific significance
Discuss alternative explanations for data & ask questions raised in research



Bibliography listing of all sources the author cited for article



A comprehensive frame work that summarizes a hypothesis which has undergone rigorous tests and have never been disapproved
Theories are not as easily discarded as hypotheses


What makes a good scientific theory

Supported by data
Parsimony ( simpler the better)
Does not prove anything ( can be modified and changed)


Basic research

Research that is not intended to address a specific problem
Done to enhance the general bod of knowledge
Ex- cognitive psych ( short term memory study)


Applied research

Research with a practical problem in mind
Applied directly to real world problems
Ex- clinical psych
Treatment outcome studies


Example of basic research becoming applied

Studies on fear in rats that dissipates with d-cyclosporine
That is translated to extrication of human fear for anxiety


Problems with scientific peer review

Hard to get unknown unbiased reviewers because small field
Articles only accepted, denied or rejected with invite to revise


Differenc between scientific journals and journalism

Scientific journals read by experts
Journalism is popular press too
Accessible to everyone


Issues in popular press

Benefits and risks of journalism coverage
Is the story important
Is it accurate
Is it sensationalized and does it make sweeping conclusions outside the scope of the data


Idols of the cave

Francis bacons idea
Founded on common errors of individuals nature
"Everyone has a cave or den of his own which refracts and discolors the light of nature "


Idols of the tribe

Francis bacons ideas
Founded on human nature
A false assertion that the sense of man is the measure of all things


Scientific Method

A process in which experiments are used to answer questions


What's wrong with experience

Experience has no comparison group
No change in independent variables
Experience is confounded
There is another alternative explanation for the findings


Confounding variables

The object of an experiment is to test whether A influences B
The confounding variable is anything that can lead to a change in B not from A


Why does personal experience conflict with research

Research is probabilistic
So inferences are there to explain a proportion of cases but not all
There will be outliers and you could be one of them


Why is intuition faulty

Biased by faulty thinking
Biased by motivation
Researchers include a comparison group to control for confounds and want to evaluate with out bias


Why is intuition bias by faulty thinking

We will except a conclusion because it makes sense, but that doesn't mean it's correct
Things that easily come to mind guide our thinking but aren't all cases
Focus on positive instances more than negative ones


Why would intuition be bias by motivation

We focus on evidence we like best
Ask bias questions to get expected answers w/I knowing
Bias about being bias


Types of scientific sources

Empirical journal articles
Review journal articles
Edited books
Full length books


Meta analysis

Type of scientific source
A set of statistical procedures for summarizing experimental, quasi experimental and correlational results across independent studies that address a set of related research questions
By accumulating results across studies researchers gain a more accurate representation compared to individual study estimators