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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (61):
1

Data

information needed to answer their questions

2

Scientific Hypothesis

a possible explanation of what scientists observe in nature or in the results of their experiments

3

Model

an approximate representation or simulation of a system, in this case a deforested valley, being studied

4

Scientific Theory

A well-tested and widely accepted scientific hypothesis or a group of related hypotheses

5

Peer Review

Science is a community effort, and an important
part of the scientific process

6

Scientific Law or Law of Nature

a well-tested and widely accepted description of what we find happening repeatedly in nature in the same way

7

Tentative Science or Frontier Science

They are not yet considered reliable

8

Reliable Science

consists of data, hypotheses, models, theories, and laws that are widely accepted by all or most of the scientists who are considered experts in the field under study

9

Unreliable Science

Scientific hypotheses and results that are presented
as reliable without having undergone the rigors of
widespread peer review, or that have been discarded as a result of peer review

10

Matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

11

Element

a fundamental type of matter that has a unique set of properties and cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means

12

Compounds

combinations of two or more different
elements held together in fixed proportions

13

Atom

the smallest unit of matter into which an element can be divided and still have its characteristic
chemical properties

14

Atomic Theory

The idea that all elements are made up of atoms

15

Neutrons

No electrical charge

16

Protons

Positive electrical charge

17

Electrons

Negative electrical charge

18

Nucleus

Each atom consists of an extremely small center

19

Atomic Number

equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of its atom

20

Mass Number

the total number of neutrons and protons in its nucleus

21

Isotopes

The forms of an element having the same atomic number but different mass numbers

22

Molecule

A second building block of matter

23

Ion

A third building block of some types of matter ; an atom or a group of atoms with one or more net
positive or negative electrical charges

24

Acidity

a chemical characteristic that helps determine how a substance dissolved in water will interact with and affect its environment

25

pH

A measure of acidity

26

Chemical Formula

to show the number of each type of atom or ion in a compound

27

Organic Compounds

they contain at least two carbon atoms combined with atoms of one or more other elements

28

Inorganic Compounds

All other compounds

29

Cells

the fundamental structural and functional units of life.

30

Genes

Within some DNA molecules are certain sequences of nucleotides

31

Traits

coded units of genetic information

32

Chromosome

a double helix DNA molecule wrapped around some proteins ; thousands of genes make up only one of these

33

Matter Quality

a measure of how useful a form of
matter is to humans as a resource, based on its availability and concentration

34

High quality matter

is highly concentrated ; great potential for Isa as a resource

35

Low quality matter

not highly concentrated ; little potential for use as a resource

36

Physical change

there is no change in its chemical composition

37

Chemical reaction

There is a change in the chemical composition

38

Nuclear change

change in the nuclei of its atoms

39

Law of conservation of matter

Whenever matter undergoes a physical or chemical change, no atoms are created or destroyed

40

Energy

the capacity to do work or to transfer hea

41

Kinetic energy

Matter in motion

42

Heat

the total kinetic energy of all moving atoms, ions, or molecules within a given substance

43

Electromagnetic radiation

which energy travels in the form of a wave as a result of changes in electrical and magnetic fields

44

Potential energy

which is stored and potentially available for use

45

Fossil Fuel

were formed over millions of years as layers of the decaying remains of ancient plants and
animals (fossils) were exposed to intense heat and pressure within the earth’s crust

46

Energy Quality

measure of the capacity of a type of energy to do useful work

47

High quality energy

has a great capacity to do useful work because it is concentrated

48

Low quality energy

is so dispersed that it has little capacity to do useful work

49

first law of thermodynamics or law of conservation of energy

Whenever energy is converted from one form to another in a physical or chemical change, no energy is created or destroyed

50

Second law of thermodynamics

whenever energy is converted from one form to another in a physical or chemical change, we end up with lowerquality or less useable energy than we started with

51

System

a set of components that function and interact in some regular way

52

Inputs

flows or throughputs of matter and energy within the system

53

Outputs

Flows out of the environment

54

Feedback

Any process that increases of decreases a change to a system

55

Feedback loop

occurs when an output of matter, energy, or
information is fed back into the system as an input and leads to changes in that system

56

Positive feedback loop

causes a system to change further in the same direction

57

Negative feedback loop

causes a system to change in the opposite direction from which is it moving

58

Time delay

a lack of response during a period of time between the input of a feedback stimulus and the system’s response to it

59

Tipping point

the point at which a fundamental shift in the
behavior of a system occurs

60

synergistic interaction or synergy

occurs when two or more processes interact so that the combined effect is greater than the sum of their separate effects

61

Science

is a human effort to discover how the physical world works by making observations and measurements, and carrying out experiments.