Chapter 2 - Cognitive, Language, and Literacy Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Cognitive, Language, and Literacy Development Deck (74):
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Development

Orderly and lasting growth, adaptation, and change over the course of a lifetime.

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Continuous Theories of Development

Theories based on the belief that human development progresses smoothly and gradually from infancy to adulthood.

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Discontinuous Theories of Development

Theories describing human development as occurring through a fixed sequence of distinct, predictable stages governed by inborn factors.

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Cognitive Development

Gradual, orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated.

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Schemes

Mental patterns that guide behavior.

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Adaptation

The process of adjusting schemes in response to the environment by means of assimilation and accomodation.

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Assimilation

Understanding new experiences in terms of existing schemes.

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Accomodation

Modifying existing schemes to fit new situations.

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Equilibration

The process of restoring balance between present understanding and new experiences.

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Constructivism

View of cognitive development that emphasizes the active role of learners in building their own understanding of reality.

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Sensorimotor Stage

Stage during which infants learn about their surroundings byusing their senses and motor skills.

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Reflexes

Inborn automatic responses to stimuli (e.g., eye blinking in response to bright light).

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Object Permanence

Understanding that an object exists even if it is out of sight.

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Pre-operational Stage

Stage at which children learn to represent things in the mind.

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Conservation

The concept that certain properties of an object (such as weight) remain the same regardless of changes in other properties (such as length).

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Centration

Paying attention to only one aspect of an object or situation.

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Reversibility

The ability to perform a mental operation and then reverse one's thinking to return to the starting point.

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Egocentric

Believing that everyone views the world as you do.

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Concrete Operational Stage

Stage at which children develop the capacity for logical reasoning and understanding of conservation but can use these skills only in dealing with familiar situations.

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Inferred Reality

The meaning of stimuli in the context of relevant information.

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Seriation

Arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, or volume.

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Transitivity

A skill learned during the concrete operational stage of cognitive development in which individuals can mentally arrange and compare objects.

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Formal Operational Stage

Stage at which one can deal abstractly with hypothetical situations and reason logically.

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Developmentally Appropriate Education

Instruction felt to be adapted to the current developmental status of children (rather than to their age alone).

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Sign Systems

Symbols that cultures create to help people think, communicate, and solve problems.

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Self-regulation

The ability to think and solve problems without the help of others.

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Private Speech

Children's self-talk, which guides their thinking and action; eventually internalized as silent inner speech.

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Zone of Proximal Development

Level of development immediately above a person's present level.

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Scaffolding

Support for learning and problem solving; might include clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking the problem down into steps, providing an example, or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner.

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Emergent Literacy

Knowledge and skills relating to reading that children usually develop from experience with books and other print media before the beginning of formal reading instruction in school.

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Three General Principles of Development

1. People develop at different rates
2. Development is relatively orderly.
3. Development takes place gradually.

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Maturation

Biological changes that are genetically programmed at conception - least modifiable.

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Activity

The ability to act on the physical environment and learn from it

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Social Transmission

Learning from others.

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Accomplishments of the Sensorimotor Stage

Object permanency
Logical, goal-directed actions

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Accomplishments of the Pre-operational Stage

Cognitive mapping
Language
Reversible thinking

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Cognitive Mapping

Thinking about how you are going to get somewhere before you go.

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Decentering

Learned in the pre-operational stage, but not mastered until very end, or perhaps in the concrete operational stage - the ability to focus on more than one aspect at a time of something.

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Collective Monologue

Characteristic of the pre-operational stage; children in a group talk but do not actually interact or communicate.

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Concrete Operations

Mental tasks tied to concrete objects and situations - hands-on thinking.

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Accomplishments of the Concrete Operational Stage

Identity
Compensation
Reversibility
Classification
Seriation

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Identity

Principle that a person or object remains the same; accomplishment of the concrete operational stage.

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Compensation

Principle that changes in one direction can be offset by changes in another; accomplishment of the concrete operational stage.

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Reversibility

Mastery of two-way thinking; accomplishment of the concrete operational stage.

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Classification

Related to reversibility - grouping objects into categories, and recognizing that one class fits into another.

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Accomplishments of the Formal Operational Stage

Abstract Thinking
Coordination of many variables
Hypothesizing
Scientific Reasoning

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Adolescent Egocentrism

Assumption that everyone else shares one's thoughts, feelings, and concerns.

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Disequilibrium

A mismatch between what the student thinks should happen and what actually happens. Students may then rethink their understanding and develop new knowledge.

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Cooperative Learning

Putting high, middle, and low ability students together to enable them to learn from each other.

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Information Processing

The study of how humans perceive, comprehend, and remember the information they gain from the world around them.

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Four Aspects of Attention

Controlling Attention
Fitting Attention to Task - focusing on the dimensions of a problem that will lead to the solution
Planning
Monitoring

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Metacognitive Ability

Ability to think about one's own thinking, and then monitor and direct it.

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Metacognition

Knowledge about our own thinking processes.

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Three Aspects of Language

Pronunciation
Grammar
Meaning

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Pronunciation

Involves distinct sounds of a language

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Phonemes

Distinct sounds of a language - English has 40 separate phonemes.

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Grammar

Includes morphemes and syntax

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Morphemes

Smallest units in language that have meaning

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Syntax

The order of words in phrases or sentences

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Meaning

The combined effects of semantics and pragmatics

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Semantics

The meaning of words and combinations of words; affected by the context (learned through prior experience).

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Pragmatics

The area of language that involves the effects of contexts on meaning and the unwritten rules for when, how, to whom, and about what we speak in different contexts (situational).

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Characteristics of the "First Words Stage" of Learning Language

Holophrase
Overextension

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Holophrase

Single words that express complex ideas (ex. saying "light" to say "it's too dark and I need more light")

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Overextension

Using one word to cover a range of concepts (ex. all animals are dogs)

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Characteristic of "First Sentences" Stage of Language Learning

Telegraphic speech

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Telegraphic Speech

Child's speech using only essential words, as in a telegram

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Over-regularization (as applies to grammar)

Applying a learned rule to all situations, including inappropriate ones (mixing grammar rules).

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Dialect

A variation of a language spoken by a particular ethnic, social, or regional group. Differences in dialect are not errors.

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Verbal Skill

In the early elementary grades, one of the most important of all developmental tasks. School success is equated with reading success.

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Analytical Skills

Considered second most important task in elementary grades. It's problem solving and includes math and other abilities such as map and table interpretation.

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Emergent Literacy

Knowledge and skills relating to reading that children usually develop from experience with books and other print media before the beginning of formal reading instruction in school.

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Whole Language

Emphasizes the integration of reading, writing, and language and communication skills across the curriculum in the context of authentic of real-life materials, problems, and tasks.

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Bilingualism

Being able to speak two languages fluently.