Chapter 2 Human Body In Health And Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Human Body In Health And Disease Deck (92):
0

Aden/o

Gland

1

Adip/o

Fat

2

Anter/o

Before, front

3

Caud/o

Lower part of body, tail

4

Cephal/o

Head

5

Cyt/o -cyte

Cell

6

End- endo-

In, within, inside

7

Exo-

Out of, outside, away from

8

Hist/o histi/o

Tissue

9

Path/o -pathy

Disease, suffering, feeling, emotion

10

Plas/i plas/o -plasia

Development, growth, formation

11

Poster/o

Behind, toward the back

12

-stasis -static

Control, maintenance of a constant level

13

Physi/o physic/o

Nature or physical

14

Ventr/o

Belly side of the body

15

Dorsal

Back of the organ or body

16

Anterior

Situated in the front
Front or forward part of an organ

17

Posterior

Situated in the back
Back part of an organ

18

Cephalic

Toward the head

19

Caudal

Toward the lower part of the body

20

Proximal

Situated nearest the midline or beginning of a structure

21

Distal

Situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure

22

Medial

The direction toward, or nearer, the midline

23

Thoracic cavity

Chest cavity or thorax
Surrounds and protects heart/lungs
Separated from abdominal cavity by diaphragm

24

Iatrogenic illness

Unfavorable response to prescribed medical treatment

25

Idiopathic disorder

Illness without known cause

26

Infectious disease

Illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such as bacteria and viruses

27

Congenital disorder

Abnormal condition existing at time of birth

28

Idi/o

Peculiar to the individual

29

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Growth abnormalities, mental retardation, brain damage, socialization difficulties

30

Geriatrician

Physician who specializes in care of older people

31

Nosocomial infection

Disease acquired in hospital or clinical setting

32

Umbilical region

Center of abdominal wall
Belly button
Navel

33

Right and left iliac regions

Located over hip bones

34

Right and left lumbar regions

Located near inward curve of spine
Between ribs and pelvis

35

Right and left hypochondriac regions

Covered by lower ribs

36

Hypogastric region

Located below the stomach

37

Cytoplasm

Material within cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus

38

Retroperitoneal

Located behind the peritoneum

39

Peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum

40

Peritoneum

Multilayered membrane that protects and holds organs in place within abdominal cavity

41

Mesentery

Fused double layer of parietal peritoneum that attaches part of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall

42

Epigastric region

Located above the stomach

43

Ventral cavity

Located along front of body and contains organs that sustain homeostasis

44

Homeostasis

Process through which body maintains constant internal environment

45

Abdominal cavity

Contains major organs of digestion

46

Pelvic cavity

Formed by hip bones
Contains reproductive and excretory systems

47

Midsagittal plane

Known as midline
Divides body into equal left and right halves

48

Stem cells

Somatic or embryonic
Undifferentiated cells that can change into any cell

49

Sickle cell anemia

Inherited red blood cell disorders

50

DNA

Located on pairs of chromosomes in cell nucleus
Contains thousands of genes that provide info for heredity

51

Chromosomes

46 in humans
Determines traits

52

Genetic disorder

Pathological condition caused by absent or defective gene

53

Histology

Study of structure, composition, and function of tissues

54

Tay-Sachs disease

Harmful quantities of fatty substance buildup in tissues and nerve cells in brain
Results in early death

55

Huntingtons disease

Causes nerve degeneration that appear in midlife
Results in uncontrolled movements and loss of mental abilities

57

A-

Without

58

Anaplasia

Change in structure of cells and their orientation to each other

Characteristic of tumor formation

59

Cystic fibrosis

Genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects respiratory and digestive systems

60

Hemophilia

Group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which blood clotting factor is missing

61

Muscular dystrophy

Group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that cause movement

62

Phenylketonuria

Genetic disorder in which essential digestive enzyme is missing
Can be detected by blood test at birth
Dietary supervision is good
No care causes retardation

63

Inguinal

Relating to the groin

64

Retro-

Behind

65

Transverse plane

Horizontal plane that divides body into superior and inferior portions

66

Sickle cell anemia

Group of inherited red blood cell disorders transmitted by recessive gene

67

Hypoplasia

Incomplete development of an organ or tissue due to a deficiency in number of cells

68

Dysplasia

Abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs

69

Hyperplasia

Enlargement of an organ or tissue because of abnormal increase in number of cells

70

Hypertrophy

General increase in bulk of body part or organ due to increase of cell size in the tissue

71

Bloodborne transmission

Spread of disease through contact with blood or body fluids contaminated with blood

72

Communicable disease

Any condition transmitted from one person to another by direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects

73

Vector-borne transmission

Spread of disease due to bite of a vector such as mosquito, dog, rats, fleas, ticks

74

Adenectomy

Surgical removal of a gland

75

Adenocarcinoma

Malignant tumor that originates in a glandular tissue

76

Adenoma

Benign tumor that arises in or resembles glandular tissue

77

Adenomalacia

Abnormal softening of a gland

78

Adenosclerosis

Abnormal hardening of a gland

79

Endemic

Ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group, or area

80

Dem/i
Dem/o

Population

81

Epidemic

Sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population, group, or area

82

Epi-

Above

83

Exocrine glands

Secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body

84

Endocrine glands

Produce hormones directly into blood stream

85

Functional disorder

Produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomic cause can be identified

86

Pandemic

Outbreak of disease occurring over large geographic area, possibly worldwide

87

Pan-

Entire

88

Etiology

Study of the causes of a disease

89

Anatomy

Study of structures in the body

90

Physiology

Study of functions of the structures of the body

91

Peritoneum

Multilayered membrane that protects and holds organs in place within abdominal cavity

103

Aplasia

Defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue