Flashcards in Chapter 2: Microbial Cell Structure and Function Deck (15):
what is meant by the term morphology?
a cell that is spherical or ovoid in morphology is referred to as what?
coccus, (plural cocci)
a cylindrically shaped cell in morphology is referred to as what?
rod or bacillus
cells that are curved or loose spiral shapes are called what?
as cell size increases, its s/v ratio ______
t/f/ the higher S/V ratio of small cells supports a faster rate of nutrient and waste exchange per unit of cell volume compared with large cells
what are mutations?
occasional errors in DNA replication
why can prokaryotic cells grow faster and evolve more rapidly than larger cells?
because they are quite small and are also genetically haploid meaning they only have one copy of each gene which allows mutations to be expressed immediately
although physically weak, cytoplasmic membranes of some bacteria are strengthened by sterol-like molecules called ______
what are the rigid and planar molecules that strengthen the membranes of eukaryotic cells?
proteins that are significantly embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane
integral membrane proteins
proteins that are more loosely attached to the cytoplasmic membrane
peripheral membrane proteins
In the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and eukarya, the hydrophobic component consists of fatty acids and the hydrophilic component of a glycerol molecule containing phosphate and another functional group bonded to phosphate.
in the cytoplasmic membrane of archaea, instead of lipids in which ester linkages bond fatty acids to glycerol, the lips contain ether bonds between glycerol and a hydrophobic side chain that is not a fatty acid. the hydrophobic region is formed from repeating units of the 5 carbon hydrocarbon isoprene.