Chapter 25 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 25 Deck (22):
1

difference between infection and disease

Infection: whether or not host is harmed it is a microbe growing in a host
disease: injury to organism affection host functions

2

what is pathogenicity

the ability of a parasite to inflict damage

3

what is adherence

enhanced microbial ability to attach to host (it is necessary but not sufficient for disease)

4

INFECTION AND DISEASE PROCESS CHART

INFECTION AND DISEASE PROCESS CHART

5

what are receptors in regards to pathogens

many ones coat pathogens and tissues and it is where pathogens can bind

6

what proteins are responsible for adhesins

glycoproteins or lipoproteins on pathogen surface

7

Characteristics of capsules

FIRST it is an adherence structure
sticky, has specific receptors that can facilitate attachment to host tissues, can protect microbes from ingestion by white blood cells

8

other adherence structures

fimbriae, pili, flagella

9

how does colonization occcur

gain access to host tissues and growth of microorganisms
typically starts with mucous membranes
secretion of protein and glycoprotein

CUTS WOUNDS and punctures also provide access to microbes

10

what are dental caries

an oral microbial disease caused by streptococcus
(S. sobrinius and S. mutans) that make contact with tooth surface and reproduce and form a biofilm (called a plaque)

11

what are biofilms

planktonic growth: growth as suspension
sessile growth: grow while attached to surface and can developed into biofilms

12

how are biofilms formed

sessile growth: attached polysaccharide matrix that can contain other macromolecules (i.e. protein, DNA, lipids)

13

functionalities of biofilms

prevents harmful chemicals from penetrating, prevent protists from grazing (white blood cells) phagocytosis (engulfment) is hindered and also prevents washing away of cells

14

how to judge invasiveness

1. ability of growth in host tissue
2. the growth reaches densities that inhibit host functions

15

what is bacteremia

presence of bacteria in bloodstream

16

what is speticemia

bloodborne systemic infection

17

what can speticemia lead to

massive inflammation
septic shock
death

18

what is virulence

relative ability to cause diseases

19

what do highly virulent pathogens show

show little difference in LD (lethal doses) of LD-50 (50%) and LD-100. cell number not that much different

20

what is attenuation

decrease or loss of virulence

21

how is attenuation aluable to clinical medicine

attenuated strains used for production of vaccines (especially viral)

22

What is a compromised host

1 or more resistance mechinisms are inactive
probability of infection increases in host
ex: cancer, HIV, hospital patients that go through invasive medical procedures, surgery.