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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (37):
1

Troposphere

extends only about 17 kilometers (11 miles) above sea level

2

Greenhouse gasses

The remaining 1% of the air includes water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane ; absorb and release
energy that warms the lower atmosphere

3

Stratosphere

The next layer, stretching 17–50 kilometers (11–31
miles) above the earth’s surface

4

Hydrosphere

consists of all of the water on or near the earth’s surface

5

Geosphere

consists of the earth’s intensely hot
core, a thick mantle composed mostly of rock, and a thin outer crust

6

Atmosphere

a thin spherical envelope of gases surrounding the earth’s surface

7

Biosphere

consists of the parts of the atmosphere,
hydrosphere, and geosphere where life is found

8

natural greenhouse effect

The vibrating gaseous molecules then have higher kinetic energy, which helps to warm the lower atmosphere and the earth’s surface

9

Ecology

the science that focuses on how organisms interact with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy

10

Organism

An individual living being

11

Populations

group of individuals of the same species living in a
particular place

12

Community

Populations of different species living in a particular
place, and potentially interacting with each other

13

Ecosystems

community of different species interacting with one
another and with their nonliving environment of
matter and energy

14

Tropic level

Feeding level

15

Producers or Autotrophs

make the nutrients they need from compounds
and energy obtained from their environment

16

Photosynthesis

plants typically capture about 1% of the solar energy that falls on their leaves and use it in combination with carbon dioxide and water to form organic molecules, including energy-rich carbohydrates (such as glucose, C6 H12 O6), which store the chemical energy they need

17

Chemosynthesis

few producers, mostly specialized bacteria, can convert simple inorganic compounds from their environment into more complex nutrient compounds without using sunlight

18

Consumers or heterotrophs

that cannot produce the nutrients they need through photosynthesis or other processes

19

Primary consumers or herbivores

are animals that eat mostly green plants

20

Carnivores or secondary consumers

Animals that eat meat

21

tertiary (or higher-level) consumers

that feed on the flesh of other carnivores

22

Omnivores

such as pigs, rats, and humans eat plants and other animals

23

Decomposers

are consumers that, in the process of obtaining their own nutrients, release nutrients from the wastes or remains of plants and animals and then
return those nutrients to the soil, water, and air for
reuse by producers

24

detritus feeders or detritivores

feed on the wastes or dead bodies of other organisms

25

Aerobic respiration

which uses oxygen to convert glucose back into carbon dioxide and water

26

anaerobic respiration or fermentation

Some decomposers get the energy they need by
breaking down glucose (or other organic compounds) in the absence of oxygen

27

Food chain

A sequence of organisms, each of which serves as a source of food or energy for the next

28

Food web

form a complex network of interconnected food chains

29

Biomass

the dry weight of all organic matter contained in its organisms

30

Pyramid of energy loss

illustrates this energy loss for a simple food chain, assuming a 90% energy loss with each transfer.

31

Gross primary productivity (GPP)

is the rate at which an ecosystem’s producers (usually plants) convert solar energy into chemical energy in the form of biomass found in their tissues

32

Net primary productivity (NPP)

the rate at which producers use photosynthesis to produce and store chemical
energy minus the rate at which they use some of this stored chemical energy through aerobic respiration

33

biogeochemical cycles or nutrient cycles

The elements and compounds that make up nutrients move continually through air, water, soil, rock, and living organisms within ecosystems, as well as in the biosphere in cycles

34

hydrologic cycle or water cycle

collects, purifies, and distributes the earth’s fixed supply of water

35

Carbon cycle

Various compounds of carbon circulate through the biosphere, the atmosphere, and parts of the
hydrosphere

36

Phosphors cycle

Compounds of phosphorous (P) circulate through water, the earth’s crust, and living organisms

37

Sulfur cycle

Sulfur circulates through the biosphere