Chapter 36 - Structure and Function of Eccrine, Apocrine, Apoeccrine and Sebaceous Glands Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 36 - Structure and Function of Eccrine, Apocrine, Apoeccrine and Sebaceous Glands Deck (30):
1

What are the three types of sweat glands?

Eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine

2

True or false: the apical portions of both eccrine and apocrine glands are called acrosyringium.

True, although the acrosyringia of eccrine glands empty onto the surface of the skin, white the acrosyringia of apocrine glands empty into hair follicles

3

What type of fibres innervate eccrine glands? Apocrine glands? Apoeccrine glands?

They're all innervated by sympathetic fibres that use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter

4

Where are apoeccrine glands found on the body? Do they occur in both adults and children?

They're found in the axillae of adults only

5

Is there a relationship of apoeccrine glands to pilosebaceous units?

No

6

Are all three types of sweat glands present at birth?

No, only eccrine glands (active at birth) and apocrine glands (inactive at birth) are present; apoeccrine glands probably develop during adolescence

7

Eccrine sweat is a sterile dilute electrolyte solution. Does the concentration of electrolytes depend on the flow rate?

Yes; the higher the flow rate, the higher the electrolyte concentration

8

Do patients with CF have sweat that's too salty or too dilute?

Too salty

9

Name two odor-producing substances that bacteria can produce in the context of eccrine bromhidrosis.

Ammonia and short-chain fatty acids

10

True or false: bacterial degradation of both eccrine and apocrine sweat can produce bromhidrosis.

True; both eccrine and apocrine sweat is essentially without scent prior to bacterial breakdown

11

Where are apoeccrine glands found?

Axillae of adults, but not children

12

What are the 3 types of cells found on histology of an eccrine secretory coil?

1) large clear cells, 2) dark cells, 3) surrounding myoepithelial cells

13

Which type of sweat gland is stimulated by more alpha adrenergic fibers?

Apocrine

14

Which type of sweat gland is stimulated by more beta adrenergic fibers?

Eccrine and apoeccrine

15

What are 4 methods of studying sweat production?

1) iodine starch reaction, 2) eelctric potential and resistance measurement, 3) skin temperature measurement, 4) gravimetry

16

What type of drugs is well known to be secreted into eccrine glands?

Chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antifungals

17

What 3 micro-organisms are found in sebaceous glands associated with hair follicles? Hint: 1 fungus, 2 bacteria

1) Malassezia spp., 2) Staphylococcus epidermidis, 3) Propionibacterium spp.

18

What are the 3 types of pilosebaceous units?

1) vellus hair follicles, 2) sebaceous follicles, 3) terminal hair follicles

19

What hormone controls sebaceous gland development and sebum production?

5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)

20

What are the precursors of DHT in men and women?

In men, testosterone; in women, androstenedione

21

What does chromhidrosis mean?

Secretion of pigmented sweat (eg. yellow, green, black), which reflects the rich lipofuscin content of apocrine sweat or chromogenic bacteria or garments

22

What areas of the body don't have eccrine sweat glands?

1. External auditory canal
2. Vermillion border of lips
3. Clitoris
4. Labia minors
5. Glans penis

23

What are the main innervation/ neurotransmitter for all types of sweat glands?

Post ganglionic sympathetic fibers
Acetylcholine

24

Where are appoeccrine sweat glands found?

Axilla of adults

25

What is the mode of secretion of apocrine cells?

Decapitation

26

What anti fungal agents are excreted in the sweat?

Ketoconazole
Griseofulvin

27

What causes pseudochromhidrosis?

Chromgenic bacteria
i.e corynebacterium

28

True or false: apoeccrine sweat glands are more in patients with hyperhidrosis

True

29

True or false: sebum in sebaceous glands and within ducts contains free fatty acids

False
In the infundibulum p. acnes lipases split di- and TG to produce free fatty acids

30

What is the first detectable sign of acne?

Abnormal keratinization within the infundibulum