Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Extracting Metals and Equilibria Deck (32):
Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminum, CARBON, Zinc, Iron, HYDROGEN, Copper, Silver, Gold
Below hydrogen on series
Doesn’t react with dilute acids
Metals at the top
More easily oxidise to form cations.
Add metals to acid, perform squeaky pop test. The louder the more reactive as reaction rate is higher meaning more H2 per second.
Metal + water
Metal + steam
Metal Hydroxide + Hydrogen
Metal Oxide + Hydrogen
Displacement reactions are examples of..
More reactive - oxidation
Less reactive - reduced
Displacement reactions define
More reactive metals take the place of less reactive metals
Metals are found in
What can be extracted using carbon?
Metals less reactive than iron can be reduced in a blast furnace.
Metals more reactive carbon must be extracted using
Why electrolysis is expensive
Large amounts of electricity is expensive.
If the ore must be melted
Reduction with carbon is cheaper as carbon is cheap and fuels the heat in an exothermic reaction
Uses bacteria to separate metals from ores. Bacteria carry out chemical reactions and form a leachate, contains high concentration of metals. This can be extracted using electrolysis or displacement.
Plants grown on soil with metal compounds. They are taken up and build up in tissue. They are burned forming ash with metals, extracted using electrolysis or displacement
Prevents finite resources running out
Saves more energy than original extraction
Mines are damaging to environment and destroy habitat.
Economic benefits of extraction
Extracting costs more than recycling.
Life Cycle Assesment
LCA , looks at every stage of the lifetime of a product
LCA: Choice of material
Metals must be mined and extracted requiring energy, releasing pollution .
Crude oil is non-renewable and requires lots of energy in extraction
Uses lots of energy
Waste may be poorly disposed
Often require water, contaminated water may be let out.
LCA: Product Use
Burning fuels releases
Fertilisers can leach into water causing damage to ecosystem.
May be disposed in Landfill, polluting land and water.
Products may be incinerated causes air pollution.
Haber process equation
N2 + 3H2 2NH3
Haber process temperature, pressure and catalyst
The forward and backward reactions are happening at the same rate and time. Concentrations have reached a balance so won’t change.
Equilibrium can only be reached in a
Equilibrium shifts right
More products (concentration) less reactant (concentration)
Equilibrium shifts left
More reactant (concentration) Less products (concentration)
What 3 things can change the position of equilibria.
Pressure (involving gases)
Concentrations (reactants or products)
Effect of temperature on equilibria.
Increase : Moves ENDOthermic direction.
Decrease: Moves EXOthermic direction
Le Chatelier principle
If the concentration, temperature or pressure change, the reaction will shift to COUNTERACT this.
Changing pressure on equilibria
Increasing: Moves side with few moles of GAS
Decreasing: Moves to side with more moles of GAS