Chapter 4 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity recall Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity recall Deck (33):
1

behavior genetics

the study of relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.

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environment

every non-genetic influence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things thing around us.

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chromosomes

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.

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DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

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deoxyribonucleic acid

a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

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genes

the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein

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genome

the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes.

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identical twins

twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits into two, creating two genetically identical organisms.

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monozygotic egg

single fertilized egg.

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fraternal twins

twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs, they are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.

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dizygotic eggs

separate fertilized eggs.

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temperament

a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.

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molecular genetics

the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.

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heritability

the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of population and environments studied.

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interaction

the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity).

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epigenetics

the study of influences of gene expression that occur without a DNA change.

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evolutionary psychology

the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.

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natural selection

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

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gender

in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.

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culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

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norm

an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe “proper” behavior.

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individualism

giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining ones' identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.

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collectivism

giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.

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aggression

physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.

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X chromosome

the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.

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Y chromosome

the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.

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Testosterone

the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.

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role

A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.

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Gender role

a set of expected behaviors for males or for females.

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Social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.

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Gender identity

our sense of being male or female.

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Gender typing

the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.

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transgender

the umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex.