Chapter 5 Scoliosis and Short Leg Syndrome Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Scoliosis and Short Leg Syndrome Deck (38):
1

Epidemiology of scoliosis?

5% of school-aged children develop it before 15

2

Percentage of children with actual sxs related to their scoliosis?

10%

3

Female: Male ratio for scoliosis?

4:1

4

Dextroscoliosis?

Curve that is SB left = scoliosis to the right

5

Levoscoliosis?

Curve that is SB right = scoliosis to the left

6

2 types of scoliosis curves?

1) Structural curve
2) Functional curve

7

Which curve is fixed and inflexible?

Structural

8

Which curve will NOT correct with sidebending in opposite direction?

Structural

9

Which is assoc with vertebral wedging and shortened ligaments/musccles on concave side?

Structural

10

T/F An uncorrected functional curve may progress to a structural curve?

True

11

When should kids be screened?

10-15 years

12

What is the angle measures the degree of scoliosis?

Cobb angle

13

What is Cobb angle?

Draw horizontal line from vertebral bodies of extreme ends of curve; then draw perpendicular lines from these horizontal lines

14

At what angle is respiratory function compromised?

>50

15

At what angle is cardiac function compromised?

>75

16

What are the causes of scoliosis?

Idiopathic, congenital, neuromuscular, acquired

17

Which type is most often progressive?

Congenital

18

What are Konstancin exercises?

A series of specific exercises that has been proven to improve the pt with scoliotic postural decompensation

19

When is bracing indicated?

Moderate scoliosis

20

When i surgery indicated?

Severe scoliosis--if there is resp compromise or if it progresses despite conservative management

21

3 things that cause short leg?

1) Sacral base unleveling
2) Vertebral SB and rotation
3) Innominate rotation

22

Most common cause of anatomical short leg?

Hip replacement

23

First ligament to be stressed in short leg?

Iliolumbar ligaments, then the SI ligaments

24

Sacral base unleveling compensation?

Sacral base will be lower on short leg side

25

Innominate compensation?

Anterior rotation on short leg side; posterior rotation on long leg side

26

Lumbar spine compensation?

SB away, rotate toward short leg side

27

Lumbosacral (Ferguson's) angle compensation?

Increased 2-3 degrees

28

How to quantify differences in heights of femoral head for short leg syndrome?

Standing x-ray

29

When to consider heel lift?

Femoral head difference >5mm

30

When should the full lift be administered?

Sudden onset of discrepancy (e.g. fracture, surgery)

31

What should the final lift height be?

1/2 - 3/4 of measured leg length discrpancy

32

What should the "fragile" pt begin with?

1/16" (1.5mm) and increase 1/16" every 2 weeks

33

What should the "flexible" pt begin with?

1/8" (3.2mm) and increase 1/8" every 2 weeks

34

What is the max height that can be applied to INSIDE the shoe?

1/4"

35

What if >1/4" is needed?

Apply to OUTSIDE of shoe

36

What is maximum heel lift possible?

1/2"

37

How do you prevent pelvis from rotating to opposite side when >1/2" lift is needed?

Apply an ipsilateral anterior sole lift extending from heel to toe

38

Most common cause of scoliosis?

Idiopathic