Chapter 5 Sections 1,2,&3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Sections 1,2,&3 Deck (51):
1

Valence electrons

Electrons with the highest energy level and are held most loosely

2

What can the number of valence electrons in an atom determine?

Properties of the element, and which ways the atom can bond with other atoms

3

Electron dot diagram

Includes the element symbol surrounded by dots, representing the valence electrons.

4

Chemical bond

The force of attraction that holds two atoms together as a result of the rearrangement of electrons between them

5

Are elements more or less stable when they have 8 valence electrons?

More

6

Does the periodic table give you info about the arrangement of electrons in atoms?

Yes

7

Why do the elements within a group have similar properties?

They have the same number of valence electrons in their atoms

8

Do how elements react depend on how many valence electrons it has?

Yes

9

Why is hydrogen grouped above Group 1 even though it is not a metal?

Too different from other elements, simplistic atom with one valence electron

10

How many valence electrons does hydrogen have?

1

11

How do atoms of metalloids behave when combining with atoms of other elements?

They can either lose or share electrons

12

Describe two ways that nonmetals can combine with other elements.

By gaining or sharing electrons

13

How many valence electrons can atoms of nonmetals have?

4 or more

14

What happens to the reactivity of metals form left the right across the periodic table?

The reactivity decreases

15

When metals react with other elements, what happens to the valence electrons of the metal atoms?

They react by losing electrons

16

How do atoms form chemical bonds?

By losing, gaining, or sharing electrons

17

What is a poly atomic ion?

Ions that are made of more than one atom

18

What happens to an atom when it gains an electron?

It gains a negative charge and becomes a anion

19

What happens to an atom when it loses an electron?

It loses a negative charge and becomes a cation

20

What is an ion?

An atom or group of atoms that had an electric charge

21

What is an ionic bond?

The attraction between to oppositely charged ions

22

What is a chemical formula?

A combination of symbols that shows the ratio of elements in a compound

23

In this formula (MgCl2) what does the 2 mean?

Subscript

24

When does the end of a name of a negative ion end with ide?

If the negative ion is a single element

25

What are three characteristic properties of ionic compounds?

Ionic crystals
High melting points
Electrical conductivity

26

Which ions are attracted to each other?

Cations to anions

27

Why do ionic compounds have high melting points?

Their energy increases when heated up

28

Alloy

A mixture made of two or more elements that had the properties of a metal

29

Properties of a metal

Shininess, malleability, ductility, conductivity

30

What is a covalent bond?

A chemical formed when two atoms share electrons

31

Molecule

A neutral particle in covalent bonds

32

Double bond

When atoms share two pairs of electrons

33

Can atoms of some elements share three pairs of electrons?

Yes

34

How are atoms arranged in molecular compounds?

In molecules

35

In a __ covalent bond, electrons are shared unequally.

Polar

36

How are electrons shared in a nonpolar covalent bond?

Equally

37

How can a molecule be nonpolar overall but still contain polar bonds?

If 2 atoms pull on shared electrons with equal force, the charges cancel out

38

True or false? Water molecules are polar.

True

39

Are molecules part of a covalent bond or ionic bond?

Covalent

40

In a covalent bond, are electrons shared or transferred?

Shared, they are transferred in ionic bonds

41

What is an ionic compound made of?

Ions

42

Are covalent bonds between metals or nonmetals?

Nonmetals

43

Nonpolar covalent bonds

Share electrons equally

44

Polar covalent bonds

Do not share electrons equally, usually different elements

45

If there is a metal and nonmetal, what is the new ending on the anion?

-ide

46

Do nonmetals or metals lose electrons?

Metals, nonmetals gain

47

Properties of ionic compounds

Ionic crystals, high melting points, and electrical conductivity REMEMBER: COVALENT BONDS ARE OPPOSITE!!!

48

Alloy

A material made of two or more elements that have the properties of a metal

49

List 4 properties of metals

Malleable, shiny, ductile, conductivity

50

What is a metallic bond?

An attraction between a positive metal ion and the electrons surrounding it

51

Explination for metallic properties

The valence electrons are extremely mobile and move easily between atoms (sea of electrons)