Flashcards in Chapter 5 Sections 1,2,&3 Deck (51):
Electrons with the highest energy level and are held most loosely
What can the number of valence electrons in an atom determine?
Properties of the element, and which ways the atom can bond with other atoms
Electron dot diagram
Includes the element symbol surrounded by dots, representing the valence electrons.
The force of attraction that holds two atoms together as a result of the rearrangement of electrons between them
Are elements more or less stable when they have 8 valence electrons?
Does the periodic table give you info about the arrangement of electrons in atoms?
Why do the elements within a group have similar properties?
They have the same number of valence electrons in their atoms
Do how elements react depend on how many valence electrons it has?
Why is hydrogen grouped above Group 1 even though it is not a metal?
Too different from other elements, simplistic atom with one valence electron
How many valence electrons does hydrogen have?
How do atoms of metalloids behave when combining with atoms of other elements?
They can either lose or share electrons
Describe two ways that nonmetals can combine with other elements.
By gaining or sharing electrons
How many valence electrons can atoms of nonmetals have?
4 or more
What happens to the reactivity of metals form left the right across the periodic table?
The reactivity decreases
When metals react with other elements, what happens to the valence electrons of the metal atoms?
They react by losing electrons
How do atoms form chemical bonds?
By losing, gaining, or sharing electrons
What is a poly atomic ion?
Ions that are made of more than one atom
What happens to an atom when it gains an electron?
It gains a negative charge and becomes a anion
What happens to an atom when it loses an electron?
It loses a negative charge and becomes a cation
What is an ion?
An atom or group of atoms that had an electric charge
What is an ionic bond?
The attraction between to oppositely charged ions
What is a chemical formula?
A combination of symbols that shows the ratio of elements in a compound
In this formula (MgCl2) what does the 2 mean?
When does the end of a name of a negative ion end with ide?
If the negative ion is a single element
What are three characteristic properties of ionic compounds?
High melting points
Which ions are attracted to each other?
Cations to anions
Why do ionic compounds have high melting points?
Their energy increases when heated up
A mixture made of two or more elements that had the properties of a metal
Properties of a metal
Shininess, malleability, ductility, conductivity
What is a covalent bond?
A chemical formed when two atoms share electrons
A neutral particle in covalent bonds
When atoms share two pairs of electrons
Can atoms of some elements share three pairs of electrons?
How are atoms arranged in molecular compounds?
In a __ covalent bond, electrons are shared unequally.
How are electrons shared in a nonpolar covalent bond?
How can a molecule be nonpolar overall but still contain polar bonds?
If 2 atoms pull on shared electrons with equal force, the charges cancel out
True or false? Water molecules are polar.
Are molecules part of a covalent bond or ionic bond?
In a covalent bond, are electrons shared or transferred?
Shared, they are transferred in ionic bonds
What is an ionic compound made of?
Are covalent bonds between metals or nonmetals?
Nonpolar covalent bonds
Share electrons equally
Polar covalent bonds
Do not share electrons equally, usually different elements
If there is a metal and nonmetal, what is the new ending on the anion?
Do nonmetals or metals lose electrons?
Metals, nonmetals gain
Properties of ionic compounds
Ionic crystals, high melting points, and electrical conductivity REMEMBER: COVALENT BONDS ARE OPPOSITE!!!
A material made of two or more elements that have the properties of a metal
List 4 properties of metals
Malleable, shiny, ductile, conductivity
What is a metallic bond?
An attraction between a positive metal ion and the electrons surrounding it