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Flashcards in Chapter 66 Deck (44):
0

How many bones are there in the human body?

206

1

What are the types of bones?

Long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones.

2

What is the shaft of the bone called?

The diaphysis.

3

What are the ends of long bones called?

Epiphyses.

4

What covers the ends of long bones?

Cartilage.

5

What are long bones designed for question

Weight-bearing and movement.

6

What is the significance of flat bones?

Hematopoiesis and protection of vital organs.

7

What are the three major cell types and bones?

Osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts.

8

What are circles of mineralized bone matrix called question

Lamellae.

9

What is the fibrous membrane that covers bones?

The periosteum.

10

What is the thin vascular membrane that covers the marrow cavity of long bones and the spaces in cancellous bones?

The endosteum.

11

Where is red bone marrow located?

The sternum, ilium, vertebrae and ribs in adults.

12

What is another word for bone formation?

Osteogenesis.

13

What is the process by which bone matrix is formed?

Ossification.

14

How do bones grow during childhood?

Modeling.

15

What process do adult bones undergo?

Remodeling.

16

How often does complete skeletal turnover occur?

Every 10 years.

17

What stimulates bone remodeling?

Physical activity, particularly weight-bearing exercises.

18

What dietary nutrients are necessary for bone health?

Calcium and vitamin D.

19

Which hormones affect bone health?

The major hormone regulators are parathormone and calcitonin. Both thyroid hormone and cortisol affect bone health. The sex hormones testosterone and estrogen have important effects on bone remodeling.

20

What are the three phases of bone healing?

Phase 1: Reactive Phase- The body's responses similar to that of any other injury. Granulation tissue begins to form.
Phase 2: Reparative Phase- granulation tissue is replaced with callus precursor called procallus.
Phase 3: Remodeling Phase- New bone forms.

21

What is a joint?

The junction of two or more bones.

22

What are the types of joints?

▪️ ball and socket joints
▪️ hinge joints
▪️ saddle joints
▪️ pivot joints
▪️ gliding joints

23

What is a ligament?

Fibrous connective tissue bands that bind one bone to another bone.

24

What is a bursa?

A sac filled with synovial fluid that cushions the movements of bone, tendons, ligaments at a point of friction. They are found at elbows shoulders hips and knees.

25

What is an isometric contraction?

The length of the muscle remains the same, but the force increases.

26

What is isotonic contraction?

Shortening of the muscle with no increase in tension.

27

What is muscle tone?

State of muscle readiness for movement and action.

28

What is a flaccid muscle?

A muscle that is limp and without tone.

29

What is a spastic muscle?

A muscle with a greater than normal tone.

30

What is an atonic muscle?

A soft and flabby denervated muscle.

31

What is hypertrophy?

The enlargement of muscle tissue.

32

What is atrophy?

The increase in muscle size.

33

How is bone pain described?

A dull deep ache that is "boring".

34

How is muscular pain described?

Soreness or aching referred to as "muscle cramps".

35

What is paresthesia?

The sensation of burning, tingling or numbness.

36

What is kyphosis?

An increased forward curvature of the thoracic spine.

37

What is lordosis?

Exaggerated curvature of the lumbar spine.

38

What is scoliosis?

A lateral curvature of the spine.

39

How is gait assessed?

The patient walks a short distance away from the examiner.

40

What are some important diagnostic tests of the musculoskeletal system?

X-ray, CT scan, MRI, and arthrography.

41

What is bone densitomestry?

It estimates bone mineral density.

42

It is a bone scan?

It is used to detect primary and metastatic bone tumors, osteomyelitis, some bone fractures and aseptic necrosis.

43

What is arthroscopy?

A minimally invasive way to directly visualize the inside of a joint.