Chapter 7: Brain Structures and Mechanisms for Speech, Language, and Hearing Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Brain Structures and Mechanisms for Speech, Language, and Hearing Deck (62):
1

What are the four cerebral hemispheres?

frontal lobe
temporal lobe
parietal lobe
occipital lobe

2

which lobe is the primary motor cortex located?

frontal lobe

3

what are the boundary lines of the frontal lobe?

central fissure and the sylvian fissure.

4

where is broca's area?

the primary motor cortex within the frontal lobe.

5

what are the function of the frontal lobe?

thinking
judgement
behavior
movement
language

6

what would be damaged if there was a lesion of the frontal lobe?

changes in executive function
increase in risk taking behavior
preservation
little spontaneous facial expressions

7

what is the primary motor cortex made up of?

-contains motor neurons that send signals to execute movement.
-neurons are arranged in somatopic fashion.

8

what are the functions of the premoter cortex?

-plans movement
-includes Broca's area (left frontal lobe).
-significant representation for speech.

9

what are the functions of the prefrontal cortex?

-executive function:
attention
inhibition
flexibility
working memory
problem solving

10

where is the temporal lobe?

middle temple area

11

what are the boundary lines of the temoporal lobe?

sylvian fissure separates temporal from frontal and parietal. lower boundary is occipital lobe.

12

what are the subsystems of the temporal lobe?

-primary auditory cortex (heschl's gyrus).
-planum temporale
-wernicke's area

13

what are the functions of the temporal lobe?

-analyze acoustic signals (frequency)
-intensity and duration of sound.
-ex. auditory analysis for speech/ language understanding.

14

What would be damaged if there was a lesion to the temporal lobe?

-difficulty comprehending language even if speech production is essentially normal.

15

what are the boundary lines of the parietal lobe?

it bounded by the central fissure in front, below by the sylvian fissure, and towards the back by the parietno-- occipital fissure.

16

what are the substructures of the parietal lobe?

primary somatosensory cortex
posterior parietal complex
angular gyrus
supramarginal gyrus

17

what are the functions of the parietal lobe?

-integration of sensory information
-higher level language functions.

18

what is damaged when you acquire a lesion on your parietal lobe?

difficulty with math concept and understanding metaphors.

19

sensory neurons are arranged in a ____________ function.

somatopic

20

Primary somatosensory _________.

cortex

21

what is the system that responds to touch/pain stimuli from the body?

the primary parietal complex within the parietal lobe.

22

what integrates sensory stimuli to create complex experiences.

Posterior parietal complex

23

what is the "association" cortex associating different types of sensory stimuli to direct action plans based on that information?

Posterior parietal complex

24

object recognition in the hand is a process carried out by what complex?

posterior parietal complex.

25

what goes wrong if there is damage in the occipital lobe?

agraphia
alexia
distorted perception
hallucinations

26

what is agraphia?

inability to communicate in writting

27

what is alexia?

word blindness

28

what is an area involved in high- level language within the parietal lobe?

agular gyrus

29

what are the boundary lines of the occipital lobe?

posterior portion of the cerebral hemispheres

30

what are the substructures of the occipital lobe?

primary visual cortex ( divided into upper (cuneus) and lower (lingual gyrus) portions by the calcarine fissure.

31

what are the functions of the occipital lobe?

visual processing

32

what are the boundary lines of the limbic system/lobe?

central to the brain

33

what are the substructures of the limbic system/ lobe?

cingulate gyrus
parahippocampal gyrus
hippocampus
amygdaloid body

34

what are the functions of the limbic system?

control:
emotions
motivation
memory
adaptive functions
olfaction = smell

35

what is damaged if there is a lesion in the limbic system?

amnesia
sometimes aphasia

36

the cingulate gyrus
parahippocampal gyrus
hippocampus
and amygdaloid body are apart of what system?

the limbic system

37

where are the boundaries of the insula?

seen when the "lips" or opercula of the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes are pulled away.

38

are there any substructures of the insula?

nope

39

what are the functions of the insula?

-engaged in speech, language and swallowing functions.

40

if the insula is damaged what happens?

expressive aphasia occurs

41

what recieves info from the cortex, processes it, sends it back to the cortex via the thalamus?

basal ganglia

42

what receives all sensory information except olfaction from the brainstem and relays it to specific cortical areas

thalamus

43

what does the cerebellum contribute?

movement, coordination, balance

44

what are the different parts of the brainstem?

midbrain
ponds
medulla
oblongota

45

what are the different parts of the spinal cord?

cervical
thoracic
lumbar
meninges
ventral and dorsal roots
grey and white matter

46

what is the meniges?

protective layers

47

what are the different parts of the spinal cord?

cervical
thoracic
lumbar
meninges
ventral and dorsal roots
dorsal root root ganglia
grey and white matter

48

what are descending projection tracts?

corticobulbar: motor cortex to cell groups in brainstem.
corticospinal: motor cortex to cell groups in spinal cord.
corticothalamic: widespread regions of the cortex to cell groups in the thalamus.

49

what are ascending projection TRACTS?

sensory pathways (touch, pressure, vibration, pain, temp, taste, odor, light, sound)

50

give an example of a projection coming from periphery.

hand, up to brain.

51

what are the types of neurons?

interneurons
motor
sensory

52

explain interneuron.

neuron to neuron

53

explain motor neurons.

info from CNS towards muscles/ organs.

54

explain sensory neurons.

info from sensory receptors towards the CNS.

55

how many cranial nerves are there?

12

56

cranial nerve V

(trigeminal): mixed sensory to face, tongue, teeth; motor to muscles of jaw movement, mylohyoid muscle, tenser tympani muscle, tensor veli palatine muscle.

57

cranial nerve VI

(facial): mixed: sensory to parts of external ear, taste for anterior 2/3rds of tongue; motor to muscle of facial expression, stapedius muscle, control of salivary glands.

58

cranial nerve VIII

(auditory/ vestibular nerve): mixed: sensory of hearing, balanced, coordination of head and body motion.

59

cranial nerve IX

(glossopharyngeal): mixed: sensory for parts of external eardrum, upper part of pharynx, taste for posterior 1/3rd of tongue, detection of blood, gases, and pressure, motor to stylopharyngeus muscle, control of salivary glands in pharyinx.

60

cranial nerve X

(vagus): mixed: sensory for pharynx, larynx, smooth muscles of heart and gut.

61

cranial nerve XI

(accessory): motor: motor: to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles.

62

cranial nerve XII

(hypoglossal): motor: motor: to intrinsic and extrinsic muscle of tongue (except palatoglossus muscle, innervated by cranial nerve X).