Flashcards in Chapter 7- Theoretical Distributions including the Normal Distribution Deck (16):

1

## Empirical distributions

### Distributions using observed scores (i.e. real scores)

2

## What are theoretical distributions based on?

### Mathematical formulas and logic, rather than on empirical observations

3

## What can you use theoretical distributions to find?

### Probability

4

## What does probability range from?

###
Probabilities are often called "chances in a hundred."

It ranges from 0.00 to 1.00

5

## What is the significance of 0 and 1 concerning a probability?

###
0.00- equals no certainty

1.00- equals certainty

6

## Rectangular distribution

###
distribution in which all scores have the same frequency.

It involves straight lines

7

## Are straight lines still called curves?

### Yes. The line that encloses a histogram or frequency polygon is called a curve, even if it is straight.

8

## What do the areas of a probability add up to?

### 1.00

9

## Binomial distribution

###
Is another example of a theoretical distribution.

Distribution of the frequency of events that can have only two possible outcomes

10

## Example of a binomial distribution

### Flipping a coin in the air. Finding the possibilities of heads/tails

11

## How to calculate a binomial distribution

### Multiply the probabilities of each of the independent events

12

## Theoretical v empirical

###
Theo

-distribution may not reflect 'exactly' what happens

-best estimate of how events would actually occur

Empirical

-actual results influenced by chance

-if we redid the test and did 520, 5,200, or 52,000 the theo and empirical would sit flat on top of each other and match

13

## Normal distribution

### A bell-shaped, theoretical distribution that predicts the frequency of occurrence of chance events

14

## Is your data wrong if it does not look like a normal distribution?

### NO. Just because it's not normal doesn't mean it's abnormal

15

## What is the x-axis of a normal distribution?

### z scores

16