Chapter 8 & 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 & 9 Deck (53):
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Cholecystectomy

Surgical removal of gallbladder

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Uremia

Excess of urea and other nitrogenous waste

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Hemodialysis

Machine that filters blood of a person to remove waste products

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Liver

Large organ in right upper quadrant of abdomen serves many functions in body it's digestive system role includes producing bile,processing absorbed nutrients and detoxifying harmful substances

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Filtration

First stage in urine production during which waste products are. Filtered from blood

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Reabsorption

Second stage of urine production, substances needed for the body are reabsorbed as filtrate passes through kidney tubules

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Secretion

Third phase of urine production, additional waste products are added to filtrate as it passes through kidney tubules

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Micturition

Another name for urination

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Nephrolith

Kidney stone

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Cystoplasty

Surgical repair of the bladder

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Hemataria

Condition of blood In the urine

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Dysuria

Painful or difficult urination, a symptom of many disorders such as cystitis, urethritis, enlarged prostate in males, and prolapsed uterus in females

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Olguria

Condition of scanty amounts of urine

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Strictire

Narrowing of passageway in urinary system

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Polyuria

Condition of having excess urine production, can be symptoms of diabetes

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Colonoscopy

Flexible fibers scope passed through anus, rectum and colon is used to examine upper portion of colon polyps and small growths can be removed

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Hydrochloric acid

HCI acid secreted by the stomach lining aids in digestion

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Pyloric sphincter

Sphincter at the distal end of the stomach controls passage of food in the duodenum

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Cecum

First portion of the colon; is a blind pouch off beginning of large intestine

The appendix grows out of the end of the cecum

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Rectum

Stores feces

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Bile

Substance produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
Added to chyme in the duodenum and functions to emulsify fats so they can be digested and absorbed
Cholesterol is essential to bile production

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Gastrectomy

Surgical removal of stomach

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Ileal

Pertaining to ileum

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Diarrhea

Passing frequent watery bowel movements; usually accompanies gastrointestinal disorders

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Emesis

Vomiting usually with some force

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Jaundice

Yellowing of skin, mucus membrane, and the whites of the eyes caused by the deposit of bile pigment from too much bilirubin in the blood

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Groin

The area between the abdomen and the thigh on both sides of the body

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Tracheal

Pertaining to the trachea

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Salivary glands

Exocrine glands with ducts that open in the mouth, produces saliva which makes blouse of food easier to swallow and begins digestive process

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Uvula

Hanging down flap from posterior edge of soft palate

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Tongue

Muscular organ in the mouth works to move food around and is necessary for speech

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Enamel

Hardest substance in the body

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Deciduous

20 teeth that begin to erupt between 6 mos. and 28 mos. of age.

Baby teeth

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Oropharynx

Middle part of the pharynx that food and drink is received from the mouth

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Esophagus

Tube that carries food from the pharynx to the stomach

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Gastrointestinal system (GI)

Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum and anus

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The accessory organs

Organs that participate in the digestion process, but are not part of the continuous alimentary canal (the gut)

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What are the accessory glands and how are they connected?

Liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and salivary glands

Connected to gut by ducts

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Small intestine

Average length of 20 feet, is the longest portion of the alimentary canal and has 3 sections: duodenum, jejunum and ileum

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Duodenum

Extends from the pyloric sphincter to the jejunum and is about 10 to 12 inches long. Digestion is completed in the duodenum after the chyme from the stomach is mixed with digestive juices from the pancreas and gallbladder

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Jejunum

The middle portion extends from the duodenum to the ileum

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Ileum

The last portion of the small intestine and extends from the jejunum to the colon. At 12 feet in length it is the longest portion of the small intestine

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Ileocecal valve

Sphincter that connects ileum to the colon

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Colon

Approximately 5 feet long extends from the cecum to the anus

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Blouse

Saliva mixed with food in the mouth

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Amylase

Digestive enzymes that begins the digestion of carbohydrates

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Three pairs of salivary glands

Parotid - in front of the ears
Mandibular glands - floor of the mouth
Sublingual glands - floor of the mouth

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Gallbladder

(GB) bile produced by liver is stored in the gallbladder.
In response to fat in the chyme, the muscular walls of the gallbladder contracts and sends bile back down the cystic duct and into the common bile duct which carries bile to the duodenum which it is able to emulsify the fat in chyme

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Hepatic duct and cystic duct

Bile produced by the liver travels down the hepatic and cystic ducts into the gallbladder

The gallbladder sends the bile back down the cystic duct

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Pancreatic duct

Connects the pancreas to the duodenum

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Pancreas

Produces two important secretions for digestion: buffers and pancreatic enzymes
Is also an endocrine gland that produces the hormone insulin and glucagon, which play a role in regulating the level of glucose in the blood

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Buffers

Neutralize acidic chyme that has just left the stomach

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Pancreatic enzymes

Chemically digest carbohydrates carbohydrates, fats and proteins