Flashcards in Chapter 8: Properties of Black Oils - Definitions Deck (20):
What type of chemical species are present in black oils?
Heavy - 27.9 mol % C7+
What is the conversion factor used to convert cc to bbl?
6.2898 x 10 ^-6 bbl/cc
What is the definition of liquid specific gravity in:
b) equation w/ units
a) the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water (at same T & P)
b) density oil / 62.37 (unit less)
What are the 3 changes that cause the ST volume to be less than res volume?
1) evolution of dissolved gas as pressure is decreased from reservoir to surface
2) oil expansion because of reduction in pressure
3) oil contraction because of temperature reduction
What is the definition of the formation volume factor of oil in:
b) equation, with units
a) the vol of reservoir oil required to produce one bbl of oil in the ST
Bo = vol of oil + dissolved gas leaving res @ res condition
vol of oil entering ST @ STP
As the reservoir pressure increases, what happens to the oil formation factor (Bo) at the bubble point (Pb)?
Bo increases to a max value
Because of the expansion of the liquid in the reservoir
What is the shrinkage factor?
The reciprocal of the vol formation factor
bo = 1
What does the solution gas-oil ratio (Rs) represent and what equation do you use to find it?
It represents the solubility of gas in oil
Rs = vol of gas produced at std. conditions
vol of oil in ST at std conditions
What happens to the solution gas-oil ratio (Rs) above the bubble point (Pb)?
What happens to it at the bubble point (Pb)?
Above the Pb, Rs remains constant and at max value as pressure is decreased
At the Pb, Rs begins to decrease as pressure is decreased
When is black oil considered:
b) under saturated
a) at the Pb, where release of some gas is allowed (2 phases, liquid & gas)
b) above Pb, the oil could dissolve more gas (light molecules) if the gas were present
What is the total volume factor, Bt in:
b) an equation, with units
a) the total vol that would be occupied by oil & gas if all of the free gas remained in the reservoir
b) Bt = Bo + Bg (Rsb - Rs) res bbl/STB
* where Rsb is the solution gas-oil ratio at bubble point)
What is the total formation volume factor (Bt) above the bubble point?
Bt = Bo
because above the bubble point, the Rsb & Rs are the same, therefore =0
What is the coefficient of isothermal compressibility of oil (Co) in:
b) an equation, with units
When is this applicable?
a) the fractional change of vol as pressure is changed at constant temperature
b) Co = - 1/v (partial V / partial P), psi-1
* only applicable at pressure above the bubble point pressure
What is the equation for the coefficient of isothermal compressibility of oil (Co), if Co is assumed to be constant with pressure change?
Co (P2 - P1) = - ln (V2 / V1)
V2 = V1 EXT [Co (P1 - P2)]
What is Co in terms of density?
If Co is assumed constant with pressure change AND pressure is above Pb, what is the equation?
Co = (1/ density oil) (partial density oil / partial pressure)
Co is constant when pressure changes above the bubble point
density oil = density oil at bubble point * EXT [ Co (P - Pb)]
What happens to the vol of reservoir liquid as pressure is reduced below Pb?
What happens to the reservoir vol occupied by the mass that was originally liquid? Why?
The vol of reservoir liquid decreases as pressure is reduced below Pb
The reservoir volume increases, due to the evolution of gas
What is the coefficient do isobaric thermal expansion in:
b) an equation
a) the fractional change in vol of a liquid as temperature changes under constant pressure
b) oil vol @ high temp
oil vol @ low temp
What happens to the viscosity of oil, when:
a) temperature goes up
b) the amount of dissolved gas goes down
c) the size of HC molecules increases
a) temp goes up => oil viscosity goes down
b) amount of dissolved gas goes down => oil viscosity goes up
c) oil viscosity increases with the increase in size of HC molecules
What are the 5 physical properties required for the reservoir engineering material balance calculations?
1) formation vol factor of oil (Bo)
2) solution gas-oil ratio (Rs)
3) total formation vol factor (Bt)
4) coefficient of isothermal compressibility (Co)
5) coefficient of viscosity of oil