Chapter 8 - Student-Centered and Constructivist Approaches to Instruction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Student-Centered and Constructivist Approaches to Instruction Deck (18):
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Constructivist Theories of Learning

Theories that state learners must individually discover and transform complex information, checking new information against old rules and revising rules when they no longer work.

1

Cognitive Apprenticeship

The process by which a learner gradually acquires expertise through interaction with an expert, either an adult or an older or more advanced peer.

2

Discovery Learning

A constructivist approach to teaching in which students are encourage to discover principles for themselves.

3

Self-Regulated Learners

Students who have knowledge of effective learning strategies and how and when to use them.

4

Mediated Learning

Assisted learning; an approach in which the teacher guides instruction by means of scaffolding to help students master and internalize the skills that permit higher cognitive functioning.

5

Reciprocal Teaching

A small-group teaching method based on principles of question generation; through instruction and modeling, teachers foster metacognitive skills primarily to improve the reading performance of students who have poor comprehension.

6

Cooperative Learning

Instructional approaches in which students work in small mixed ability groups.

7

Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD)

A cooperative learning method for mixed-ability groupings involving team recognition and group responsibility for individual learning.

8

Cooperative Integrated Reading and Comprehension (CIRC)

A comprehensive program for teaching reading and writing in the upper elementary grades; students work in four-member cooperative learning teams.

9

Jigsaw

A cooperative learning model in which students are assigned to six-member teams to work on academic material that has been broken down into sections for each member.

10

Learning Together

A cooperative learning model in which students in four or five-member heterogeneous groups work together on assignments.

11

Group Investigation

A cooperative learning model in which students work in small groups using cooperative inquiry, group discussion, and cooperative planning and projects, afterward making presentations to the whole class on their findings.

12

Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS)

A structured cooperative learning method in which students work in pairs taking turns as teacher and learner, using specific metacognitive strategies.

13

Cooperative Scripting

A study method in which students work in pairs and take turns orally summarizing sections of material to be learned.

14

Problem Solving

The application of knowledge and skills to achieve certain goals.

15

Means-End Analysis

A problem-solving technique that encourages identifying the goal (ends) to be attained, the current situation, and what needs to be done (means) to reduce the difference between the two conditions.

16

Instrumental Enrichment

A thinking skills program in which students work through a series of paper-and-pencil exercises that are designed to develop various intellectual abilities.

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Critical Thinking

The ability to make rational decisions about what to do or what to believe.