Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Student-Centered and Constructivist Approaches to Instruction Deck (18):
Constructivist Theories of Learning
Theories that state learners must individually discover and transform complex information, checking new information against old rules and revising rules when they no longer work.
The process by which a learner gradually acquires expertise through interaction with an expert, either an adult or an older or more advanced peer.
A constructivist approach to teaching in which students are encourage to discover principles for themselves.
Students who have knowledge of effective learning strategies and how and when to use them.
Assisted learning; an approach in which the teacher guides instruction by means of scaffolding to help students master and internalize the skills that permit higher cognitive functioning.
A small-group teaching method based on principles of question generation; through instruction and modeling, teachers foster metacognitive skills primarily to improve the reading performance of students who have poor comprehension.
Instructional approaches in which students work in small mixed ability groups.
Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD)
A cooperative learning method for mixed-ability groupings involving team recognition and group responsibility for individual learning.
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Comprehension (CIRC)
A comprehensive program for teaching reading and writing in the upper elementary grades; students work in four-member cooperative learning teams.
A cooperative learning model in which students are assigned to six-member teams to work on academic material that has been broken down into sections for each member.
A cooperative learning model in which students in four or five-member heterogeneous groups work together on assignments.
A cooperative learning model in which students work in small groups using cooperative inquiry, group discussion, and cooperative planning and projects, afterward making presentations to the whole class on their findings.
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS)
A structured cooperative learning method in which students work in pairs taking turns as teacher and learner, using specific metacognitive strategies.
A study method in which students work in pairs and take turns orally summarizing sections of material to be learned.
The application of knowledge and skills to achieve certain goals.
A problem-solving technique that encourages identifying the goal (ends) to be attained, the current situation, and what needs to be done (means) to reduce the difference between the two conditions.
A thinking skills program in which students work through a series of paper-and-pencil exercises that are designed to develop various intellectual abilities.