Chem: nucleotides & nucleic acids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chem: nucleotides & nucleic acids Deck (25)
1

nucleotides bonded together to form

RNA & DNA

2

nucleotides have __ components? what are they?

3
Phosphate
Sugar
Nitrogenous

3

example of sugar base?

Deoxyribose
Ribose

4

Example of nitrogenous base?

Purines
pyrimidines

5

example of purines

adenine
guanine

6

example of pyrimidines

uracil (rna)
thymine
cytosine

7

nucleotides within one strand are bonded together by ?

phosphodiester

8

base pairs bwn complimentary strands are bonded by?

hydrogen bonds (which are easily broken)

9

where does DNA syhesis take place?

"S" phase
nucleus

10

DNA doubling?

46>>>92 chromosomes

11

what enzyme unwinds DNA strands?

topoisomerase

12

DNA polymerase acts as a ___ for DNA

template
makes new DNA from the parent strand of DNA

13

what does Mitosis do?

splits the double strand of 92 chrom into two identical 46 chrom daughter strands

14

how are the bases counted?

3 bases at at time

15

what is transcription?

RNA synthesis 5' to 3'

16

transcription takes place in? is it specific?

nucleolus
only the segment of DNA with the specific region to be transcribed unwinds.

17

what does RNA polymerase do?

binds to the promoter site. Begins to make RNA primer strand from the DNA template

18

what is meant by the CODE?

it is the DNA sequence which is read 3 bases at a time

19

what is the terminiation sequence?

RNA polymerase reaches a special section of DNA called the termination sequence. the polymerase and RNA primer strand fall off of te DNA, whih then rewinds itself

20

what is mRNA?

messenger RNA
holds the information to determine amino acid sequence order

21

what is rRNA?

main component of the ribosomal unit which moves along the mRNA

22

what is tRNA?

jumps on and off the RNA carrying the amino acids with it.

23

what is translation? what is the process?

it is Protein synthesis
-mRNA binds to a ribsome before translation occurs
- codon in the mRNA chain codes for the AA
- antidon in the tRNA is a complimentary to a specific codon
- anticodon then binds to the mRNA codon and brings the AA to the ribosome
-AA on the tRNA forms a peptide bond with the AA on the tRNA next door- by peptidyl transferase
- tRNA leaves the ribosome gets to another AA
-enzyme AA is attached to a tRNA by aminoacyl-trna synthase

24

start codon?

AUG

25

stop codon?

UAA, UAG, UGA