Chem: Vitamins & minerals Flashcards Preview

board review part 1 > Chem: Vitamins & minerals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chem: Vitamins & minerals Deck (33)
1

water soluble vitamins

B1,2,3,5,6,9,12
biotin
c
bioflavonoids

2

fat soluble vitaminss

ADEK

3

B1 active form; rxn; deficiency; notes

Thiamine
A: TPP thiamine pyrophosphate
R: oxidative decarboxylation
Def.: BERI BERI- paralysis
alcoholics- wernickes korsakoff
can have neurological, cerebral, & vascular manifestations
wheat germ, pork, oatmeal

4

B2 active form; rxn; deficiency; notes

Riboflavin
A: FAD; FADH; FMN;FMNH
R: oxidative reduction & electron transfer rxn
D: cheilosis & angular stomatitis, blurred vision
magenta tongue, pallor
Beef, chicken, liver, eggs

5

B3 active form, rxn, deficiency, notes

Niacin
A: NAD, NADH, NADP, NADPH
R: ox. red., electron transfer, glycolysis
D: pellagra, dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death (4D's)
flush, itchy, will also be deficient in tryptophan
liver, tuna, oatmeal, salmon

6

B5 active form, rxn, deficiency, notes

Pantothenic Acid
A: pantothenic acid
R: coenzyme A
D: rare, burning feet, malaise, abdominal pain
beef, chicken liver, sunflower seeds

7

B6 active form, rxn, deficiency, notes

pyridoxine
A: pyridoxal phosphate
R: transamination & decarboxylation
D: convulsions in infants, dermatitis, loss of myelin
can be toxic, sensory ataxia
liver, oatmeal, banana, garbanzo

8

B9 active form, rxn, deficiency, notes

folic acid
A: tetra hydro folate
R: methyl transfer
D: macrocytic megaloblastic anemia
prevents neural tube defects
chicken liver, spinach, lentils

9

B12 active form, rxn, deficiency, notes

cyanocobalamin
A: deoxy-adenosyl cobalamin
R: methyl transfer, recycles folic acid,
D: vegetarians: Pernicious anemia
macrocytic anemia, combined systems disease (PLS)
needs IF to be absorbed
not found in plants

10

Biotin active form, rxn, deficiency, notes

A: biotin
R: carboxylation
D: glossitis, dermatitis, avidin in eggs prevents Ab's
needed to make fats & carbos
cauliflower, peanuts, & cheese

11

Vit C active form, rxn, deficiency, notes

A: reduced state
R: collagen synthesis & AOX
D: scurvy & bleeding gums
makes hydroxyproline- collagen synthesis
citrus, fruits

12

Bioflavanoids

vitamin C reduced
white part of fruit

13

Vit A active form, deficiency, notes

retinol (from beta carotene)
A: retin
D: night blindness, dry cornea, ulcerations (xeropthalmia), skin sores, everything feels dry
helps with vision in rod cells of retina & mucous membranes
toxicity: headaches, peeling skin
beef & chicken liver, carrots, sweet potatoes, cantaloupe

14

Vit D active form, deficiency, notes

Cholecalciferol
A: sun>skin ; liver & kidneys; 1,25 diOH cholecalciferol
D: rickets; Osteomalacia
absorbs calcium from the gut
toxicity: anorexia, renal failure

15

Vit E active form, deficiency, notes

tocopherol
A: stored in adipose, liver, & muscle
requires bile salts & fat for absorption
D: possibly hemolytic anemia, MD, sterility, CV problems
AOX with selenium
Toxicity: interferes with enzymes

16

Vit K active form, deficiency, notes

Quinone
A: synthesized by large intestine bacteria, requires bile salts & fat for absorption
Stored in LIver & spleen
D: clotting disorders
makes prothrombin in the liver
toxicity: kernicterus, neural

17

Calcium fxn?

9-11 mg % in bondy
F: component of bone
muscle contraction
nerve regulation

18

Ca++ regulated by?

vit D. in th egut
calcitonin in the blood> bone
PTH in bone> blood

19

Ca++ deficiency? Toxicity?

rickets; osteomalacia; osteoporosis, may lead to tetany
Tox: dec muscle tone, calcium deposits in soft tissue, renal failure

20

Phopsphorus fxn, regulated by, def., tox?

F: component of bones, ATP, nucleic acids
R: kidney
D: rickets, osteomalacia, renal dysfunction
T: may lead to bone loss

21

Sodium fxn, regulated by, def., tox.?

F: h2o distribution, osmosis, AP, bicarbonate
R: aldosterone
D: hyponatremia, confusion, coma
T: HTN

22

Potassium Fxn, Regulated by, Def., Tox?

F: nerve and muscle AP
R: aldosterone
D: caused by diuretics, muscle weakness
T: cardiac arrest

23

Chlorine fxn, def.?

acid base balance
secondary to vomitting

24

magnesium fxn, def, tox?

F: component of bone, cofactor for kinase, needed for glucose breakdown
D: diabetes, HTN, inc chol, spasms BV
T: poisoning-miners, neuro symptoms- like parkinsosns

25

Chromium fxn, metabolism, def.?

F: glucose transport
M: helps bind insulin to cell
D: impaired glucose tolerance

26

Cobalt fxn, def.?

F: constituent of B12
D: macrocytic (pernicous) anemia

27

Copper fxn, metab, def?

F: part of cytochrome A oxidase
M: transported by albumin; melanin formation
D: menkes syndrome(hereditary die infancy)

28

iodine fxn, metab, def?

F: part of thyroxine
M: stored as thyroglobulin
D: cretinism, goiter, myxedema

29

Iron fxn, metab, def?

F: part of heme enzymes
M: transported as Transferrin; Stored as Ferritin
D: hypochromic microcytic anemia

30

manganese fxn, metab, def?

F: cofactor for decarboxylase
M: hemoglobin, forms urea, growth, reproduction
D: ligamentous healing

31

selenium fxn, metab, def?

F: cofactor for glutathione peroxidase
M: synergistic with vit E
D: cardiomyopathy; Tox: hair/nail loss

32

Zinc fxn, tox, def?

F: cofactors for carbonic anhydrase
toxicity- metal fume fever- neuro damage
D: impaired wound healing

33

Fluorine fxn, tox, def?

F: increases hardness of teeth
Tox: causes mottled teeth
D: dental caries