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Flashcards in Clinical Syndrome of Heart Failure Deck (33)
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1

NYHA functional class that is symptomatic with moderate exertion

- II

2

NYHA functional class that is symptomatic with minimal exertion

- III

3

NYHA functional class that is symptomatic at rest

- IV

4

distended jugular veins is a symptom of

- right heart failure

5

pulmonary rales is a symptom of

- left heart failure

6

hepatomegaly is a symptom of

- right heart failure

7

S3 or S4 gallop is a symptom of

- left heart failure

8

peripheral edema is a symptom of

- right heart failure

9

orthopnea is a symptom of

- left heart failure

10

the most common cause of right heart failure

how

- left heart failure

- leads to pulmonary artery pressure which increases afterload on right ventricle

11

most common presenting symptom of heart failure is

- dyspnea on exertion

12

heart failure with preserved ejection fraction often due to

- diastolic dysfunction

13

S3 heart sound due to

- early diastolic filling of a volume overloaded ventricle

14

S4 heart sound due to

- late diastolic filling/atrial contraction into a stiff ventricle

15

what can echocardiogram determine in heart failure that is very helpful

- ejection fraction

16

BNP in heart failure released because of

- cardiomyocytes in response to stretch/strain

17

what drugs do we give for heart failure

- ACE inhibitors
- ARBS
- aldosterone antagonists
- beta blockers

18

neurohormonal effect of ACE inhibitors and ARBs

- reversal of remodeling
- decreased fibrosis
- decreased sodium and water retention
- decreased sympathetic tone

19

hemodynamic effect of ACE inhibitors and ARBs

- afterload reduction via
- decreased SVR
- decreased BP

20

result of reversing remodeling

- lowers wall stress
- decreases myocardial oxygen demand

21

result of decreasing afterload

- decrease myocardial oxygen demand
- increases stroke volume

22

contraindications for ACE inhibitors and ARBs

- angioedema to ACE inhibitors
- bilateral renal artery stenosis
- advanced renal dysfunction

23

contraindications for aldosterone antagonists

- hyperkalemia
- advanced renal disease

24

what beta blockers do we mostly use to treat heart failure

- carvedilol
- metoprolol

25

big contraindication for beta blockers

- acute decompensated heart failure

26

MOA of digoxin

- inhibits Na+ export via Na+/K+ ATPase
- promotes Ca2+ retention and increases contractile force

27

downside of digoxin

- narrow therapeutic window

28

do diuretics have any neurohormonal effects?

- no

29

benefit of diuretic

- decrease preload which alleviates some symptoms of HF

30

what does the QRS need to be in order to derive benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy

- > 120