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Flashcards in Cognitive Psych Exam 3 Deck (61):
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Our thinking system is..

interactive
-experiences can add to or change what we know
- your general knowledge (what you already know) determines what you notice and learn from an experience
interactive
Examples: buy new car, now everyone has one!
Domain expertise: college student vs psych professor the professor captures more from the psych presentation

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Domain expertise:

college student vs psych professor the professor captures more from the psych presentation

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How are concepts represented/organized in semantic memory?

Organizational schemes: prototypes, exemplars, network
All useful, don't have to pick just one

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Prototype approach (Rosch 1973)

-for each concept, we store the most typical version
On "average"
-then judge whether experience or object belongs in that category
The more unusual it is the more you wonder what else it could be
Supported by lots if research!
Performance on production tasks
-Bird: Robin is more likely then ostrich, gives prototypical examples
The typicality effect, found on a sentence verification task
- how quickly do you respond?
Ex: a carrot is a vegetable, yeah it is! Faster reaction on typical
The semantic priming effect
-measuring reaction time, faster to an item if it was proceeded by something of similar meaning.

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Limitation of prototype approach

Does not explain shifts in our thinking about prototypes
If you live in pa it's a truck, NYC it's a taxi....move from pa to NYC it changes to taxi
Semantic memory
Dog
Golden retriever
Wheezie
Standard poodle
Use our examples as a point of comparison
Supported by research!

Typicality judgements (heit and barsalou, 1996)
Matcha attics, modeling to predict what people felt was typical
People think of unusual examples of insect when deciding if insect is a typical animal
More appropriate if you've had a few exposures
Also if you're an expert! So you can look back at specific cases

Network models
Hold knowledge in a network
Emphasizes storing in a network with many interconnections
Collins and Loftus: (1975) spreading activation; links become stronger with use
Dogs: more and more of what you know about dogs
Anderson: (1983) propositional networks
Proposition: smallest unit of meaning that can be judged as true or false
Spreading is restricted by limited working memory capacity
Parallel distributing processing approach (McClelland and Rogers 2003)
Processing occurs in a parallel, not serial, manner
Example: drink you think water, clue added hot you think tea, made if leaves know its tea
Our knowledge about a concept is distributed
Connections are weighted based on experiencelstronger the weight the more experienced you are with it

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Typicality judgements (heit and barsalou, 1996)

Matcha attics, modeling to predict what people felt was typical
People think of unusual examples of insect when deciding if insect is a typical animal
More appropriate if you've had a few exposures
Also if you're an expert! So you can look back at specific cases

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Network models

Hold knowledge in a network
Emphasizes storing in a network with many interconnections

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Collins and Loftus: (1975)

spreading activation; links become stronger with use
Dogs: more and more of what you know about dogs

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Anderson: (1983) propositional networks

Proposition: smallest unit of meaning that can be judged as true or false
Spreading is restricted by limited working memory capacity

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Parallel distributing processing approach (McClelland and Rogers 2003)

Processing occurs in a parallel, not serial, manner
Example: drink you think water, clue added hot you think tea, made if leaves know its tea
Our knowledge about a concept is distributed
Connections are weighted based on experiencelstronger the weight the more experienced you are with it

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General knowledge:
Schemas and scripts

Schema: our general idea/expectation about a situation, event or person, based on your experiences
Reduces anxiety
Guides your understanding and interpretation of your experiences
One type of schema is a script: expected sequence of events for very familiar activity
(it's like a prototypeif the sequence if events)
Memory for schema-consistent material
When there's a delay we tend to make errors consistent with our schema,
might falsely recall there was a cake because it's consistent with birthday schema
Memory for schema inconsistent material
We don't remember well things that are inconsistent with our schema, diesnt stick, diesnt refer to self! Unless it was wildly different!!

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Schema:

our general idea/expectation about a situation, event or person, based on your experiences
Reduces anxiety
Guides your understanding and interpretation of your experiences
One type of schema is a script

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One type of schema is a

script: expected sequence of events for very familiar activity
(it's like a prototypeif the sequence if events)

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Memory for schema-consistent material

When there's a delay we tend to make errors consistent with our schema,
might falsely recall there was a cake because it's consistent with birthday schema

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Memory for schema inconsistent material

We don't remember well things that are inconsistent with our schema, diesnt stick, diesnt refer to self! Unless it was wildly different!!

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We learn rules about allowable word order

These rules do not depend on meaning
"The boy hit ball the"
Phrase structure rule
Sentences must have noun phrases and verb phrases
Sentence parsing
We understand as we go. Go back if it doesn't make sense
Psycholinguistics: the cognitive (and biological) processes involved in language production and comprehension
Currently English Centered
Arose in 1960s with an Interest in using psychology to test Noam Chompskys theory

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Phrase structure rule

Sentences must have noun phrases and verb phrases

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Sentence parsing

We understand as we go. Go back if it doesn't make sense

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Psycholinguistics:

the cognitive (and biological) processes involved in language production and comprehension
Currently English Centered
Arose in 1960s with a. Interest in using psychology to test Noam Chompskys theory

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Chompskys Theory of Language Acquisition

Language is...Innate
Modular: separate from all other cognitive functions
Just need triggering input! (Exposure to language)
Children are born with knowledge of universal grammar rules
-assumes that many aspects of grammar are the same across languages

Start constrained then fast language acquisition
Listen and learn (a lot of commonality, superficial differences)

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Deep language vs. Surface structure

Sara threw the ball
Subject, verb object
The ball was thrown by Sara
Object, verb, subject
Grammar different (surface stricture different but deep meaning is the same!

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Opposing view:Many psychologists argue that language is not special or

modular
Tomasello (2003) and others emphasize the meaning of language (not grammar) in order to explain language acquisition/use
Learned
Social skill
Cognitive functional approach: Learned for a purpose to communicate, it has a function powerfully cognitive mechanisms and machinery to learn language, we use language strategically

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Neurolinguistics

Focuses on how brain processes language
Damage to Wernickes area (part if brain for language comprehension)
-fluent aphasia (produce language fluidly but it's complete nonsense)
Lateralization: hemispheres become more specialized
This happens around your first birthday
Left hemisphere: language,
fMRI: however both are activated, a lot of the brain is activated
M not good for measuring production because that requires movement that the fMRI can't have. It dies help us understand comprehension




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Psychology of Reading

Cognitively complex!
Metacognition, comprehension
Comprehending written text vs spoken: 8 ways they are different
Readers on,y have the silent ink marks while listeners follow nonverbal clues (pauses, gestures)
Often comprehend better auditory
How do we access meaning of the written words? Retrieval semantics throughout your reading
Colheart (2005) "dual route approach"
Direct access: access meaning based on visual output
Bradshaw and Nettleton (1974)
Silently read word, then read out loud the second word
Horse to worse: no pronunciation errors, must be using direct access
Indirect access: access meaning by converting visual to sounds
Luo et al. (1998)
IV: type of pair
Levels: sound similar vs look similar
DV: error rate
More error in sounding similar word pairs: sport for indirect access

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Reading skill

Route used depends on reading skill, type of reading material
Beginning readers and importance of phonological awareness
Reading instructions: phonics AND whole language approaches

If reading skill is high and the word is familiar it is comprehended directly through visual. However if the word is unfamiliar it is comprehended indirectly through sound.
If reading skill is low both familiar and unfamiliar words will be comprehended through sound (indirect)

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Discourse Comprehension

More than a sentence, extended production
Use bottom up and top down to construct a representation of the meaning in a test as you go

Store representation in LTM

Use general knowledge to infer ideas that are not explicitly stated in the text
Seek consistency (Huitema et al. 1993)
Take pause when inconsistent
Looking for coherent text
Looking for story to unfold
You slow down when a reasonable inference is violated
Inference making depends on ones WMC, metacomprehension skills, and extent of relevant background
May not remember first part (WMC capacity)
R= -.55
College students test anxiety and reading comprehension scores
Negative association: higher anxiety lower the reading comprehension

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Old man the ships

Phrase structure rule
Sentences must have noun phrases and verb phrases
Sentence parsing
We understand as we go. Go back if it doesn't make sense

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Luo: relate back to Colhearts: dual route approach
Briefly describecolhearts dual route approach

How do we access meaning of the written words? Retrieval semantics throughout your reading
Colheart (2005) "dual route approach"
Direct access: access meaning based on visual output
Indirect access: access meaning based on sound (phonology)
Luo et al. (1998)
IV: type of pair
Levels: sound similar vs look similar
DV: error rate
More error in sounding similar word pairs: support for indirect access

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Verbal (speaking)

Don't appreciate how remarkable it is!
2-3 words per second, selecting words from about a 1,000 word vocabulary
Semantically correct (meaning)
Grammatically (rules)
Phonology (sound)
Are we accessing grammatucal, semantic, and phonological properties of a word simultaneously?
Dutch speakers
ERP
Not quite simultaneous
you get grammatical first split second before you get sound (phonology)
Errors (slip of the tongue)
Exchanges, anticipation errors, preservation errors, and deletions
Exchange error: flow snurries instead of snow flurries (exchange error)
Anticipation error: Leading list vs reading list
Knowing you have to make a l sound so get ahead of self and make too soon
Preservation error:Waking wabbits: waking rabbits
Hold w sound too long
Deletion error: same sate vs same state
Don't produce the t sound
Errors occur within same category
Swap whole words (noun swapping) or sounds
Why do we make errors? Spreading activation
When we start to think about something activation tends to spread to relate items
Sound and words become simultaneous activated
Sometimes accidentally retrieve and produce incirrect sound or noun

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Errors (slip of the tongue)

Exchanges, anticipation errors, preservation errors, and deletions
Exchange error: flow snurries instead of snow flurries (exchange error)
Anticipation error: Leading list vs reading list
Knowing you have to make a l sound so get ahead of self and make too soon
Preservation error:Waking wabbits: waking rabbits
Hold w sound too long
Deletion error: same sate vs same state
Don't produce the t sound
Errors occur within same category
Swap whole words (noun swapping) or sounds
Why do we make errors? Spreading activation
When we start to think about something activation tends to spread to relate items
Sound and words become simultaneous activated
Sometimes accidentally retrieve and produce incirrect sound or noun

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Gestures

Help retrieve words
Gave people definitions for uncommon words
Ex: metronome, keep time
Half hold onto stick si they couldn't use hands
Retrieved 19 out of 50
The other were free to use hands
Those retrieve 24 out if 50


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Sentences

When tying to communicate in full sentences it's very top down
Start with gist (abstract meaning)
Meaning to sentence structure to words (grammatically correct) to phonemes (sounds)

Pause: uh, um

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Discourse

Extended production beyond a sentence
What does a good story teller?
Overview
Summary of characters and setting
Action that -> "problem"
Point of the story
Resolution
Signal that you are done
Individual differences in ability to produce this kind of discourse

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Pragmatics

Rules: what's appropriate
Mindful of listeners needs
Are they getting it?
Examining background
Turn taking
Conversational partner should get a turn
Establish common ground
Similar terminology: what terms will you use
Take their terms and go with it


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Writing

Under researched
Cognitively complex
Visual processing
Use attention, memory, Metacognition, incredibly comprehensive of cognitive processes
Much more difficult than speaking
Delayed feedback
Rule bound
Learn speech first
Speaking is more automatic
Three main components of writing: planning, translating, and reviewing (revising)
Coordinated by the central executive
Recursive: no linear order, freely switch between the three

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Expert vs. Novice Writers

Compared to novices, expert writers
Spend more time planning during prewriting
Outlining: not effective for a lot of high order writing
Have gained automatic/fluency fir aspects of translating
Automatic spelling, grammatics so more working memory applied to coherence
More revisions
More strategic, substantive, and global (effect meaning of the while text
Transform knowledge retrieved from LTM
Knowledge telling: flow, transitions, aware of audience needs
Are more aware of their audience

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Working Memory Capacity and Writting

Gaining automaticity for low level processes frees up WM so we can focus on goals like coherence
Revising must use WM
Store representation of the text so far (what have I said?)
Store goals (what do I need to say?)
Identify inconsistencies (whee havei failed)
Problem solve (what should I do to fix if?)

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Baddeley 2000

Visuospatial sketchpad: Organizing, Create graphs and figure,Mental representation
Episodic buffer: Store visual representation as you describe it with language
Central executive: Planning what you will write, Switch from translating to reading, Inhibiting repetitive sentences, Knowledge of semantics
Long term memory: Knowledge of conventions, Knowledge of semantics and spelling
Phonological loop: Reading text so far, Translating, Revising at sentence level

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Cognitive model of Writting

Hayes and flower (1980)

Task environment includes assignment and text so far. Assignment takes planning which uses long term memory. After planning, translating which includes text generation and transcription occurs which leads to the text you have so far. Afterwards reviewing occurs which is revising that applies reading and editing. Planning, translating, and reviewing are all monitored.

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Bilingualism vs Second Language Acquisition

Simultaneously or acquired in sequence

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Compared to monolingual, bilinguals have

cognitive advantages
Superior metalinguistic abilities: really understand language abstractiveky, with firms and structures. They can think set their is. Language use.
Superior selective attention
Better at stroop effect, better executive control: suppress one language activation when speaking can switch languages fluidly
Dementia later on: cognitively competent longer

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Is there a critical period for SLA (second language acquisition)?

It depends on what aspect of language you are talking of
Semantics: nope
Phonology: yes! If you don't learn sounds of a language early on than you have an ascent
Grammar: studies point to yes

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Isabelle: deprived of language till 6
Her grammar was

Excellent, exposure between 0-6

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Genie: deprived of language till 13
Grammar was

Choppy,6- puberty: compromised

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Chelsea: not a used misdiagnosed, she's not retarded she's deaf
Started hearing language at 31
Grammar was

Horrible, Puberty and up: poor

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Second language acquisition

acquire in sequence
Fledge et al. (1999)
Korean to English
Not so well, got there though through education

Spanish/Dutch to English
Do pretty well
Grammar is similar

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word vs picture

IV: Type of vehicle
Levels: word vs picture

DV: Percent correct

Picture would yield a higher percentage than word presentation

Hypothesis was wrong it was vice versa!

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Schemas and memory, 15 sec vs 45 sec

Melissa and Justin
Schemas and memory
IV: amount of time
Levels: 15 sec, 45 sec
DV: number of overall correct items
Number of inconsistent correct items

Hypothesis: there was no significant difference between the amount of time and number of overall consistent and inconsistent correctly named items

48

consistent vs inconsistent

Liz

IV: type of story
Levels: consistent vs inconsistent

DV: reaction time

Not significant, reject null hypothesis that consistent would read faster

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number of trials

Chapter 10
Hypothesis: the second time would be easier, significant

IV: number of trials
DV: response time

50

Rosch 1975

If primed with the word yellow the participants would easily recognize the color yellow if it matched the schema of what yellow looks like to them, a bright yellow. If presented with a muddy yellow (a yellow that doesn't match their schema) they would take a longer time to understand this yellow as yellow.
Equal when not primed
Those who had a prototype of what yellow was to then (primed group) were slower to respond then those who were not primed because they already had an image of what yellow was and it didn't match the yellow they had in their head. The prototype approach was useful to those who were not primed because they categorized both as yellow.

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Bartlett (1932)

Bartlett (1932) conducted a study where British students we're told a Native American story and then asked to recall the story. As time passed it was seen that the participants adapted the story to fit more with their own lives. Similarities between their lives and their own were made more and more while differences were disregarded. Bartlett found that our top down processing shapes our memory.
IV: time allotted before memory retrieval
Levels: 15 minutes, several days
DV: quantity of story accurately recalled

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Nested structures

The sentence has too many nested structures which requires more memory. In order to comprehend the sentence memory of the first part is needed to understand d the later parts of the sentence,
The difficult course I wanted to take next year meets a general education requirement and is taught by a friendly professor.

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Negative

The sentence contains a negative word, not, which almost always requires more processing time than a similar affirmative sentence
I think you will be able to get into that class next semester

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Passive

The sentence is passive, accuracy drops when sentences are passive.
In the last 5 years 200 psychology majors have taken Dr. Jones course.

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Luo (1998)

The research provided evidence for the indirect access approach in adult readers. The researchers instructed college students to read pairs of words and decide whether the pair was related. The students frequently made errors on pairs that were similar sounding but not semantically similar. This error pattern suggested that the participants were silently pronouncing the pairs when making their judgement. The participants made relatively few errors on pairs that looked similar but did not sound the same.
IV: type of word pair
Levels: sounding similar vs looking similar
DV: error rate

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Phoneme

Basic unit of spoken language, such as sounds a, k and th
English language has 40 phonemes

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Morpheme

Basic unit of meaning
Reactivated, has 4
Re active, ate, ed
Each convey meaning

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Demonstration 9.2

Illustrates concrete example of the cognitive-functional approach
Each if the sentences emphasizes a somewhat different perspective on the same event
Different perspectives are reflected in the variety if questions you generated
Argues that people can use language creatively, in order to communicate subtle shades of meaning

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Chompskys also emphasized

That information can be contained in the individual words of a sentence
Example
Discuss: not only conveys info about the semantics but also specifies the requirement that discuss must be followed by a noun
Rita discussed a novel

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Neurolinguistucs

Discipline that examined how the brain processes language