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Flashcards in Computers Deck (66):
1

Give examples of input devices

Keyboard
Mouse
Microphone
Camera

2

Give an example of a process

CPU

3

Give examples of an output

Monitor
Printer
Speakers

4

What is a computer

It is an electronic device that carries out logical operations on data and displays the results to the user

5

Why is the input-processing-output model important

All Morden computers function on the general model of input-process-output

6

What does the CPU stand for

Central processing unit

7

What is the job of the CPU

The central processing unit carries out all of the stored programs instructions

8

State the purpose of the CPU

The function of the CPU is to fetch and execute program instructions stored in memory

9

Give two examples of components of the CPU

Control unit(CU)
Arithmetic logic unit(ALU)

10

What is the job of the CU

Controls all the other components of the CPU

11

What is the job of the ALU

Performs arithmetic and logical operations to carry out programs instructions

12

What one factor effects the performance of the CPU

The clock speed is one significant factor that affects the performance of the CPU

13

What other factors effect the performance of the cpu

Cache size, the number of cores and type of RAM and hard drive speed

14

Name the different Registers

Program counter
Memory data register
Accumulator
Memory address register

15

Are registers used in the fetch-decode-execute cycle

Yes they are

16

What is the function of the program counter

It holds the address of the next instruction to be fetched

17

What does the memory data register do (MDR)

A temporary store for anything copied from memory

18

What is the memory address register (MAR)

Holds the address of the memory location currently being read or written to

19

What is the job of the Accumulator

Stores the results of the calculations carried out by the ALU

20

List two registers of the cpu with the specific functions in the fetch-decode-execute cycle

Program counter
Memory address register

21

Describe the role of the control unit in the operation of the central processing unit

The CU coordinates the actions of the computer. The CU sends out control signals to other parts of the cpu and other components of the computer

22

Why does the CPU use the fetch-decode-execute

The cpu uses the fetch-Decode-execute cycle to carry our the program instructions

23

What does FDE stand for

Fetch decode execute

24

State what is done at each stage of the fetch-decode-execute

Fetch: the next instruction to be executed is transferred from the RAM to the CPU
Decode: the CU interprets the instruction
Execute: the CU then carries out the instruction, it instructs the ALU if calculations need to be performed

25

What does RAM stand for and what is it’s job

Random access memory
This is where the computer stores data and instructions when an application is running

26

Give an advantage and disadvantage of the RAM

Data can be read from and written to the RAM
RAM is volatile- if you turn off the power, data in RAM is lost

27

What does ROM stand for and it’s job

Read only memory
Is used to store instructions that don’t need to be changed during normal use

28

Give an disadvantage and advantage of the ROM

Data can only be read from ROM
ROM is non-volatile it retains data even if the power is turned off

29

Describe the role of programs stored in ROM

Programs stored in ROM carry out specific tasks including initialising hardware components and starting the operating system when a computer is switched on

30

What is the difference between volatile and non-volatile memory

The content of non-volatile memory is not lost when the power is turned off whereas the content of volatile memory changes constantly whereas the content of non-volatile memory is fixed and cannot be altered

31

State which type memory of memory is used to store application data during execution

RAM

32

Explain the role of cache memory in a computer system

Cache memory is very fast memory usually within the process or itself

33

Give three examples of secondary storage

Magnetic discs
Optical discs
Solid-state

34

What is secondary sto

A secondary storage device is a non-volatile device that holds data until it is deleted or written

35

Why is secondary storage important

Because it can store data and programs permanently on the secondary storage devices

36

Why can’t the CPU access the secondary storage data

Because they need to be transferred to the memory

37

What can secondary storage also be useful for

It can also be used to transfer stored data between computers

38

What does the magnetic storage devices include

It includes a hard disc drives which can store large amounts of data

39

What do hard disc drives consist of

Hard disc drives consists of a stack of non-removable discs coated with magnetic materials

40

How does the magnetic disc work

The disc spins and read-write heads move across the discs

41

What does optical storage include

1)compact discs the store 700MB
2)digital versatile discs that store 4.7GB
3)Blu-ray discs that store up to 50GB

42

How is Digital data stored

Digital data is stored along the track by etching pits onto the surface of the discs

43

What is solid state memory made out of

NAND flash memory

44

How is data stored in magnetic hard drive

Hard disc drives use electromagnetism to store data magnetically on metal discs

45

How is data stored on a flash memory USB stick

Data is stored in flash memory by using electricity to change the state of the transistor it is made of

46

How is data in an Optical disc drive

DVDs use light produced by a loser to store data on the disc by changing its surface

47

What is solid state memory used for

Used for data storage in portable devices such as cameras and mobile phones

48

Stage one disadvantage of using flash memory

Flash memory is non-volatile storage that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed

49

Give examples of solid state memory

Solid-state drives
Secure digital
USB flash drives

50

What the components in the embedded system

They are on a single printed Circuit board:
Processor
Memory
Input and output interfaces

51

What is an embedded system

It is a computer system built into another device in order to control it

52

What is a PCB

Is the base that supports the components that are soldered to it or fitted into sockets

53

Name devices with embedded systems

Washing machine
Digital camera
Microwave oven

54

Explain the role of embedded systems in real-time applications

Embedded systems ensures an immediate response in order for the system to react to different situations eg when the button is pressed on a camera

55

Explain one function of an embedded system on a washing machine

It monitors the water temperature so that it can turn the heating element on and off to maintain the correct temperature

56

What are embedded systems designed for

A specific function or a specific function within a larger system

57

What does an operating system do in a computer

1)manages users interactions through the user interface
2)manages peripheral devices
3)controls computing processes
4)allocates CPU and memory resources

58

What is cache(memory)

A cache memory is fast and relatively small memory, not visible to the software that is completely handled by the hardware that stores the most used main memory data

59

How does the cache affect the performance of the CPU

The cache speeds up the cpu by storing recently or frequently used instructions so that they do not have to be fetch ed from the main memory which is much slower

60

Name the special register

Accumulator
Memory data register
Memory address register
Current instruction register
Program counter

61

What special register that have a specific job in the cpu

Control unit
Arithmetic logic unit

62

What is core

1 core is a processing unit inside the cpu that can complete the FDE cycle

63

What is cache measured in

Cache is measured in hertz

64

What cache contain

It contains frequently used instructions and data

65

Does the speed of the cpu change when there are more cache

Yes, more cache you have the faster the instructions are performed

66

What is a register

A storage location inside the cpu used to hold on instructions