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Flashcards in CPESC Deck (120):
1

Years of Federal Water Pollution Control Act and three CWA amendments

1948, 1972, 1977, 1987

2

Year NPDES came into being

1972 amendment to FWPCA

3

Types of controls emphasized within NPDES program

technology-based controls

4

The name of a series of studies and projects funded by EPA from 1978 through 1983

Nationwide Urban Runoff Program

5

When permits for storm water discharges came into being; CWA section; the term for these entities

  1987 amendments to CWA402(p)Phase 1

6

when industrial and construction baseline general permits" were first issued"

1992

7

When EPA issued a final rule for Phase II's; when they had to submit applications by

1995August 2001

8

Groups included in Phase II""

- light industrial facilities- small construction sites- municipalities < 100k

9

Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments

1990--required the development of a Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Program Management Plan for every designated state under coastal zone jurisdiction.

10

Uncontrolled construciton site sediment loads exceed ______ of ______ per year

hundreds of tons per year

11

Stormwater is defnied under EPA's NPDES rules as:

stomwater runoff, snow melt runoff, and surface runoff and drainage

12

stormwater discharges does not include

return flows from irrigated agriculture or agricultrual stormwater runoff

13

The definition of waters of the united states" includes the following (7)"

1. All waters that are currently used, were used in the past, or may be susceptible to use in interstate or foreign commerce, including all waters that are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide;2. All interstate waters, including interstate wetlands;3. All other waters such as intrastate lakes, river, streams (including intermitten streams), mudflats, sandflats. wetlands

14

wetlands definition

wetlands are those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal conditions do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas

15

THe six minimum control measures

1. Public edu and outreach2. Public participation/involvement3. Illicit discharge detection and elimination4. Construction site runoff control5. Post-construction runoff control6. Pollution prevention/good housekeeping

16

the applicable standards for Phase II municipalities are to

reduce the discharge of pollutants to the MEP, protect water quality, and satisfy the water quality requirements of the CWA

17

fundamental purpose of the CWA

to protect the BUs of surface waters

18

What does the CWA requires States to do?

Adopt water quality standards

19

The TMDL process has three steps:

1. ID quality-limited waters2. Establish priority waters/watersheds3. Develop TMDLs

20

What do water quality standards do?

 define the goals for a waterbody by designating its uses, setting criteria to protect those uses, and establishing provisions such as antidegradation policies to protect waterbodies from pollutants.

21

How does a state identify quality limited waters?

303(d) list of waters that do not or are expected not to meet WQS after applying existing required controls

22

What does a TMDL define?

The amount of a particular pollutant that a water body can assimilate on a daily basis without violating applicable water quality standards

23

TMDLs should address all significant contributors that cause or threaten to cause water body use impairment, including (3):

#NAME?

24

TMDL plans may address individual pollutants or groups of pollutants, as long as they clearly identify the links between:

#NAME?

25

Federal NTU limitation and storm limit

280 NTU2-year, 24-hour storm, then no limit

26

When the EPA issued the final rule for effluent limitation guidelines---when became effective

12/2009 2/2010

27

All three general permits share the following conditions:

#NAME?

28

Those facilities that are required to apply for individual permits for their sw dischargers are:

#NAME?

29

2 application methods for obtaining an NPDES permit for sw discharges

#NAME?

30

The NOI should include the following info:

#NAME?

31

EPA offers three general permits:

#NAME?

32

Site evaluation and design development

#NAME?

33

6 major phases of SWPP planning for construction activities:

1. Site evaluation and design development2. Project Assessment3. Control selection and plan design4. Certification and notification5. Construction/implementation6. Final stabilization/termination

34

Info to obtain when collecting site info (4)

#NAME?

35

The SWPP site plan map should include (4)

- location of surface waters- location and steepness of slopes after grading- location and area of soil disturbing activities- Drainage patterns all stages, runon and runoff

36

What is involved in SWPPP project assessment?

#NAME?

37

EPA GP and sediment basins

Basin be installed where 10 acre+ of upstream drainage area is disturbed at one time. Must provide 3,600 ft^3 for every acre of land drained

38

EPA's construction permit requires inspection every ___ days or within _______

7 days24 hours of a storm of 0.5 inches or more in depth

39

Releases of reportable quantities of hazardous substances during construction must be reported in the following manner:

- Notify the National Response Center in D.C., immediately- Submit a written description of the release to EPA regional office within 14 days, including date, circumstance, control measures- Modify SWPPP as app

40

EPA has authority to bring 3 types of enfocement actions:

#NAME?

41

What EPA can accomplish with a civil action

#NAME?

42

The applicable standards for Phase II muni's are to ______, __, and ______

reduce the discharge of pollutants to the MEP, protect water quality, and satisfy the CWA

43

The erosion potential of a site is determined by these five factors:

#NAME?

44

Contour interval on SWPPP plans should be

2 feet or less

45

The USLE should be limited to situations in which _______

It's factors can be accurately evaluated and the conditions for it can be reliably applied

46

RUSL equation formula

A = R x K x L x S x C x P

47

The USLE represents soil erosion as a product of these six factors:

Rainfall and runoff erosivenessSoil erodibilitySlope lengthSlope steepnessCover-management practicesSupport conservation practices

48

RUSLE Equation, A""

A = Spatial avg soil loss and temporal avg. soil loss per unit of area, expressed in the units selected for K and for the period, R.

49

RUSLE Equation, A

is usually expressed in what units?

50

RUSLE Equation, R""

Rainfall-runoff erosivity factorthe rainfall erosion index plus a factor for any significant runoff from snowmelt

51

RUSLE Equation, K""

Soil erodibility factorthe soil loss rate per erosion index unit for a specified soil

52

RUSLE Equation, L""

Slope length factorthe ratio of soil loss fron the field slope length to soil loss from a 72.6 ft length under identical conditions- Erosion increases as slope length increases

53

RUSLE Equation, S""

Slope-steepness factorThe ratio of soil loss from the field slope gradient to soil loss from a 9% slope under otherwise identical conditions

54

RUSLE Equation, C""

Cover-management factorthe ratio of soil loss from an area with specified cover and management to soil loss from an identical area in a bare condition

55

RUSLE Equation, P""

erosion control practice factorthe ratio of soil loss with certain conservation practice to that of no practice

56

Numerical values for each of the six RUSLE factors were derived from analysis of research data and from _____

NWS precipitation records

57

What is the RUSLE?

An erosion model designed to predict the longtime average annual soil loss (A) carried by runoff from specific slopes in specified management conditions

58

USLE limitiation

better at predicting long-term averages than prediction of specific events

59

Component of the RUSLE that would address the effects of compaction on erosion

cover-management factor C""

60

 from disturbed landsComponent of the RUSLE that would address slope steepness effects on soil loss

LS table

61

Limitation to consider with respect to A""

A is the avg. loss over a slope and looses at various parts of the slope may differ greatly from one area to another

62

RUSLE factor that accounts for influence of soil properties on soil loss during storm events on upland areas

soil-erodibility factor (K)

63

two things that must be reflected in the calculation of R""

#NAME?

64

Erosion forces not reflected in the Wischmeier erosion index (R) tables

#NAME?

65

A basic way to think of soil erodibility (K)

the ease with which soil is detached by splash during rainfall or by surface flow, or both

66

Soil A" layer"

 - Upper part of the natural horizon; the topsoil.- Dark in color and generally 0-10 inches thick

67

Soil B" layer"

- Subsoil between the A layer and the parent material- 26-60 inches thick

68

Soil C" layer"

- Upper part of the parent material.- 26-60 inches thick

69

Soil information required to use the nomographs

#NAME?

70

RUSLE--accounts for the effect of topography on erosion

LS factor, aka the topographic factor

71

Definition of slope length

The horizontal distance from the origin of overland flow to the point where either:1. The slope gradient decreases enough that deposition begins; or2. Runoff becomes concentrated in a defined channel

72

Surface runoff will usually concentrate in less than ___ feet

400

73

Slopes as long as ____ feet should not be used in the RUSLE equation

1,000

74

Determining steep slope lengths for use in RUSLE

Use the horizontal distance, where slope is hypotenuse, c, and slope length is b, which ends on the downhill end where deposition begins

75

2 factors that substantially affect sheet and rill erosion estimated by the RUSLE

slope length and steepness

76

pH of pure water

7

77

2 RUSLE factors that are usually evaluated together

LS (length and steepness)

78

Equation for slope-length factor (L)

L= (λ72.6)m72.6= RUSLE plot length (ft)λ=Horizontal projection slope lengthm= variable slope-length exponent

79

Cause of Rill and Inter-Rill erosion

Rill: FlowInter-rill: Raindrop

80

Sediment Basin Design Equation

As = 1.2 Q/Vs As = Minimum surface area for trapping soil particles of certain sizeVs = Settling velocity of the design particle size chosenQ = Discharge rate measured in cubic feet per second 

81

How should the variable slope-length exponent (m) be changed when conditions favor less rill erosion than inter-rill erosion?

#NAME?

82

How should the variable slope-length exponent (m) be changed when runoff, soil, cover, and management conditions indicate that the soil is highly susceptible to rill erosion? Where would this occur?

- m should be increased. Double the β value before applying m= equation- Steep, freshly prepared construction slopes

83

Check dam ratio relationship

ratio relation between the swales drop and length and the height and spacing of the check damsdrop/ length=check dam height/check dam distance

84

How is the slope length exponent affected when deposition occurs between ridged and in depressions?Why?

-exponent should be 0-Soil loss is independent of slope length

85

slope length exponent m, when surface flow, alone, causes erosion of thawing soil

m is a constant value of 0.5

86

Stoke's Law

Describes the settling velocity of particles in a body of water

87

what equation uses m

the slope length exponent?

88

What does the slope-steepness factor (s) reflect?

The influence of slope gradient on erosion

89

Soil loss increases more with slope ______ than with slope ________

steepness, length

90

X:Y slopes--the 1" is always the ______ value"

vertical

91

- Slope steepness angle threshold that determines which slope steepness factor equation is used- What is significant about this threshold?- When can these 2 equations be used?

- 9%- Runoff is not a function of slope steepness after 9%- Slopes greater than 15 feet in length

92

A separate slope steepness factor (S) equation should be used when slopes are shorter than ____ feet

15

93

How is slope steepness estimated in the field?In the office?

- clinometer, Abney level, or similar device- Contour maps with 2-foot contour intervals

94

LS values are not absolute values, but represent the ratio of soil loss relative to...

a slope 72.6 feet long with a 9% steepness, where all other conditions are the same

95

RUSLE factor that involves the most judgement

slope length

96

What does the C-factor indicate?

How the cover management practices will affect the average annual soil loss and how that soil loss potential will be distributed in time during construction activities

97

Rill erosion is assumed to begin with a slope length of ____ feet

15, but could occur sooner on susceptible slopes

98

What is the soil loss ratio?""

An estimate of the ratio of soil loss under actual conditions to losses experienced under the reference conditions

99

check dams3 main factors

slope %distance between damsheight of dams

100

Calculating roughness factor

Real Surface Area\geometric surface area (2D)

101

V" in modilied universal soil loss equasion"

volume of runoff due to the storm event, in acre feet

102

Qp" in modilied universal soil loss equasion"

peak flow for the storm evebt , in CFS

103

Equation used if you want to figure soil loss per event

MUSLE

104

time of concentration

the time it takes runoff to travel from the hydraulically most distant point in the watershed to the design point

105

How is the Tc computed?

summing all the travel times for consecutive components in the conveyance system

106

When does shallow concentrated flow occur?

Once flow begins to form rills

107

When will shallow concentrated flow begin to occur?

Within 150 feet of the onset of runoff, and seldom after 300 feet of sheetflow

108

What is Initial Abstraction?What does it include?

the sum of the losses that occur before runoff begins.Includes intercetption, evaporation, and infiltration

109

Peak Discharge Equation for a Rainfall EVENT

QP=QU X A X Q X FPQU=UNIT PEAK DISCHARGEA=the watershed areaQ=runoff in watershed inchesFp=adjustment for watershed storage(pond, swamp)

110

Pure Live Seed

germination x purity

111

Runoff CurveX-AxisY-Axis

X=Rainfall, inchesY=Direct Runoff, Inches

112

Mulch with best micro-environment for germinating seeds

straw

113

Use what kind of mulch where mulch is maintained for more than three months?

straw

114

What do temporary mulches do

Temp E/CEstablish vegetation

115

How do mulches function

#NAME?

116

BFM

mulch fibers joined by adhesivesporous blanket

117

3 types of soil stabilzer applications

- Alone as bare earth" e/c- Sprayed over fibres

118

4 types of RECP

1. Mulch Control Netting2. Open Weave textile3. Erosion control blanket4. Turf reinforcement mat

119

Silt fence rule of thumb

1/4 acre per 100 feet of fence buried 6-8 inches

120

Basins should be designed to handle

10 year 24 hour storm